Actividad 1 Diseño de una Lección de Compresión de Lectura



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Actividad 6.1 Diseño de una Lección de Compresión de Lectura


Ma. Teresa Pozos Delgado


Descripción de la Población



La clase esta diseñada para un grupo de Comprensión de Lectura de la Facultad de Ciencias. Las edades de los alumnos oscilan entre 19 y 30 años. El nivel de ingles es muy heterogéneo y puede ser que haya alumnos desde nivel básico hasta PRE-intermedio.

Existen alumnos que han estudiado ingles un poco mas que otros, y también hay alumnos que han llevado solo Francés durante la secundaria o bachillerato. Por esta razón las instrucciones son en español.

En esta clase se les enseña a utilizar el diccionario, así que todos llevan sus diccionarios.

El numero de alumnos varia y puede ser de 20 a 25 alumnos.

Los alumnos tienen carreras como Biología, C. De la Computación, Matemáticas o Física.

La duración de una clase en Ciencias es de dos horas


Selección del Texto

El texto que seleccione About Rainbows , From : http://eo.ucar.edu/rainbows/ el cual contiene información de cómo se forma el arco iris fue seleccionado ya que es un tema que todos manejamos y que lleva un carácter científico sin llegar a ser damasiado complejo de manejar.

Actividades de Pre- Lectura

Predicción ( 3 minutos )

  1. El maestro escribirá la palabra rainbow en el pizarrón y explicara su significado.

Arco iris.

  1. El maestro explicara que la palabra es una palabra compuesta que se forma de dos palabras RAIN + BOW = Lluvia + ARCO =Arco de Lluvia, arco iris

  2. El maestro pedirá a los alumnos que llenen el siguiente diagrama con sus propias ideas

Lo que aprendí del texto...Esta ultimo deberá llenarse al final de la lectura dentro del circulo de intersección.

Actividad 2 Skimming- Scanning ( 5 minutos )

Cognados. Recuerda que los cognados son palabras que se parecen al español en la forma en la que las escribimos y en su significado. Por ejemplo:

RADIO, TELEVISIÓN, CONSERVATION

El texto que vas a leer comprende 3 bloques de información. Observa cada bloque y haz una lectura de barrido y de busca en cada bloque 5 cognados.

Bloque 1

Bloque 2

Bloque 3

Cognados

Cognados

Cognados

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

4

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5

5

5

Compara con tus compañeros y comenta con tu profesora.

Actividad 3 Vocabulario ( 5 minutos )

Relaciona las o columnas. No utilices tu diccionario solo en caso de ser muy necesario. Comenta con tus respuestas con tus compañeros.

  1. Light ( ) a) detras

  2. Earth ( ) b) cielo

  3. diverted( ) c) Pasado de surgir

  4. behind ( ) d) encima de

  5. droplet ( ) e) caer

  6. to fall ( ) f) mantener

  7. upon ( ) g) luz

  8. bow ( ) h) gota de agua

  9. sky ( ) I) doblado

  10. arose ( ) j) desviado

  11. hold up( ) k) La Tierra

  12. approach( ) l) subir

  13. receded( ) m) arco

  14. rise ( ) n) acercarse

  15. bent ( ) o) Pasado y Pasado Participio de retirarse

ABOUT RAINBOWS From : http://eo.ucar.edu/rainbows/

What is a rainbow?


Author Donald Ahrens in his text Meteorology Today describes a rainbow as "one of the most spectacular light shows observed on earth". Indeed the traditional rainbow is sunlight spread out into its spectrum of colors and diverted to the eye of the observer by water droplets. The "bow" part of the word describes the fact that the rainbow is a group of nearly circular arcs of color all having a common center.

Where is the sun when you see a rainbow?


This is a good question to start thinking about the physical process that gives rise to a rainbow. Most people have never noticed that the sun is always behind you when you face a rainbow, and that the center of the circular arc of the rainbow is in the direction opposite to that of the sun. The rain, of course, is in the direction of the rainbow.

What makes the bow?


A question like this calls for a proper physical answer. We will discuss the formation of a rainbow by raindrops. It is a problem in optics that was first clearly discussed by Rene Descartes in 1637. An interesting historical account of this is to be found in Carl Boyer's book, The Rainbow From Myth to Mathematics. Descartes simplified the study of the rainbow by reducing it to a study of one water droplet and how it interacts with light falling upon it.

He writes:"Considering that this bow appears not only in the sky, but also in the air near us, whenever there are drops of water illuminated by the sun, as we can see in certain fountains, I readily decided that it arose only from the way in which the rays of light act on these drops and pass from them to our eyes. Further, knowing that the drops are round, as has been formerly proved, and seeing that whether they are larger or smaller, the appearance of the bow is not changed in any way, I had the idea of making a very large one, so that I could examine it better.

Descarte describes how he held up a large sphere in the sunlight and looked at the sunlight reflected in it. He wrote:

"I found that if the sunlight came, for example, from the part of the sky which is marked AFZ



and my eye was at the point E, when I put the globe in position BCD, its part D appeared all red, and much more brilliant than the rest of it; and that whether I approached it or receded from it, or put it on my right or my left, or even turned it round about my head, provided that the line DE always made an angle of about forty-two degrees with the line EM, which we are to think of as drawn from the center of the sun to the eye, the part D appeared always similarly red; but that as soon as I made this angle DEM even a little larger, the red color disappeared; and if I made the angle a little smaller, the color did not disappear all at once, but divided itself first as if into two parts, less brilliant, and in which I could see yellow, blue, and other colors ... When I examined more particularly, in the globe BCD, what it was which made the part D appear red, I found that it was the rays of the sun which, coming from A to B, bend on entering the water at the point B, and to pass to C, where they are reflected to D, and bending there again as they pass out of the water, proceed to the point ".

This quotation illustrates how the shape of the rainbow is explained. To simplify the analysis, consider the path of a ray of monochromatic light through a single spherical raindrop. Imagine how light is refracted as it enters the raindrop, then how it is reflected by the internal, curved, mirror-like surface of the raindrop, and finally how it is refracted as it emerges from the drop. If we then apply the results for a single raindrop to a whole collection of raindrops in the sky, we can visualize the shape of the bow.

The traditional diagram to illustrate this is shown here as adapted from Humphreys, Physics of the Air

It represents the path of one light ray incident on a water droplet from the direction SA. As the light beam enters the surface of the drop

at A, it is bent (refracted) a little and strikes the inside wall of the drop at B, where it is reflected back to C. As it emerges from the drop it is refracted (bent) again into the direction CE. The angle D represents a measure of the deviation of the emergent ray from its original direction. Descartes calculated this deviation for a ray of red light to be about 180 - 42 or 138 degrees.

The ray drawn here is significant because it represents the ray that has the smallest angle of deviation of all the rays incident upon the raindrop. It is called the Descarte or rainbow ray and much of the sunlight as it is refracted and reflected through the raindrop is focused along this ray. Thus the reflected light is diffuse and weaker except near the direction of this rainbow ray. It is this concentration of rays near the minimum deviation that gives rise to the arc of rainbow.

The sun is so far away that we can, to a good approximation, assume that sunlight can be represented by a set of parallel rays all falling on the water globule and being refracted, reflected internally, and refracted again on emergence from the droplet in a manner like the figure. Descartes writes

I took my pen and made an accurate calculation of the paths of the rays which fall on the different points of a globe of water to determine at which angles, after two refractions and one or two reflections they will come to the eye, and I then found that after one reflection and two refractions there are many more rays which can be seen at an angle of from forty-one to forty-two degrees than at any smaller angle; and that there are none which can be seen at a larger angle" (the angle he is referring to is 180 - D).

A typical raindrop is spherical and therefore its effect on sunlight is symmetrical about an axis through the center of the drop and the source of light (in this case the sun). Because of this symmetry, the two-dimensional illustration of the figure serves us well and the complete picture can be visualized by rotating the two dimensional illustration about the axis of symmetry. The symmetry of the focusing effect of each drop is such that whenever we view a raindrop along the line of sight defined by the rainbow ray, we will see a bright spot of reflected/refracted sunlight. Referring to the figure, we see that the rainbow ray for red light makes an angle of 42 degrees between the direction of the incident sunlight and the line of sight. Therefore, as long as the raindrop is viewed along a line of sight that makes this angle with the direction of incident light, we will see a brightening. The rainbow is thus a circle of angular radius 42 degrees, centered on the antisolar point, as shown schematically here.

We don't see a full circle because the earth gets in the way. The lower the sun is to the horizon, the more of the circle we see -right at sunset, we would see a full semicircle of the rainbow with the top of the arch 42 degrees above the horizon. The higher the sun is in the sky, the smaller is the arch of the rainbow above the horizon.

What makes the colors in the rainbow?


The traditional description of the rainbow is that it is made up of seven colors - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Actually, the rainbow is a whole continuum of colors from red to violet and even beyond the colors that the eye can see.

The colors of the rainbow arise from two basic facts:



  • Sunlight is made up of the whole range of colors that the eye can detect. The range of sunlight colors, when combined, looks white to the eye. This property of sunlight was first demonstrated by Sir Isaac Newton in 1666.

  • Light of different colors is refracted by different amounts when it passes from one medium (air, for example) into another (water or glass, for example).

Descartes and Willebrord Snell had determined how a ray of light is bent, or refracted, as it traverses regions of different densities, such as air and water. When the light paths through a raindrop are traced for red and blue light, one finds that the angle of deviation is different for the two colors because blue light is bent or refracted more than is

the red light. This implies that when we see a rainbow and its band of colors we are looking at light refracted and reflected from different raindrops, some viewed at an angle of 42 degrees; some, at an angle of 40 degrees, and some in between. This is illustrated in this drawing, adapted from Johnson's Physical Meteorology. This rainbow of two colors would have a width of almost 2 degrees (about four times larger than the angular size as the full moon). Note that even though blue light is refracted more than red light in a single drop, we see the blue light on the inner part of the arc because we are looking along a different line of sight that has a smaller angle (40 degrees) for the blue.

Ana excellent laboratory exercise on the mathematics of rainbows is here, and F. K. Hwang has produced a fine Java Applet illustrating this refraction, and Nigel Greenwood has written a program that operates in MS Excel that illustrates the way the angles change as a function of the sun's angle.

Ben Lanterman has made available several beautiful photographs of rainbows on the web.


Actividad 4 Lectura ( 5 min. )

Busca la siguiente información en e texto y relaciona

  1. Donala Ahrens... a) Nos da un recuento histórico en su libro

  2. Rene Descartes b) definió el arco iris como un fenómeno de luz

espectacular

  1. Carl Boyer c) fue el primero en explicar el fenómeno del arco iris

  1. Isaac Newton d) Fue uno de los que determino como un rayo de luz es

refractado

  1. Willebrord Snell e) Demostró las propiedades de la luz

Actividad 5

Ahora lee cuidadosamente y contesta si la información es FALSA o VERDADERA. Si es FALSA subraya la información correcta. ( 45 min. )

  1. El arco iris tradicional es luz separada en su espectro de colores desviada hacia al ojo por gotas de agua.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. El arco iris es un grupo de colores con diferentes centros.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Cuando vemos el arco iris el sol esta frente a nosotros.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Durante la formación del arco iris la lluvia se encuentra en dirección opuesta al sol.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Para encontrar su explicación Descartes utilizo una gran gota de agua y el reflejo de la luz.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. En el diagrama de Descartes AFZ representan la luz del sol.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. El ángulo que se forma es de 40 grados.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. El punto D siempre es rojo no importa si el ángulo es más grande o más chico.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. En resumen la luz entra por la gota, se refleja por la superficie de la misma que es como un espejo y al final es refractada formando el arco iris.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. La desviación del ángulo D puede ser solo de 180grados y de 42 grados.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Lo que le da la forma de arco al arco iris es la concentración cerca de la mínima desviación del ángulo

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Descartes escribió que existen mucho mas rayos que se ve en el ángulo de 41 y 42 grados que en un ángulo mas pequeño y que además no se ve nada en un ángulo de 180grados.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Si no interfiriera la tierra entre los rayos del sol y la lluvia se formaría un circulo completo en vez de un arco.

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. El arco iris únicamente esta compuesto de 7 colores .

FALSO VERDADERO

  1. Cuando vemos el arco iris y sus colores, en realidad estamos viendo luz refractada y reflejada de diferentes gotas de lluvia , algunas en un ángulo de 42 grados y otras a un ángulo de 40, y otras entre estos dos.

FALSO VERDADERO

Actividad 6 Pos lectura ( 10 min )


Ahora después de haber leído el texto completa el diagrama de Venn en la intersección



¿ Que información nueva te aporto el texto? Platicalo con tus compañeros y profesor.

Actividad 7 ( 10 min.)



Recuerda que una palabra compuesta se forma por dos, tres o más palabras para formar una sola.
Las palabras compuestas pueden estar unidas, separadas por espacios o bien unidas por guiones.

Busca otros ejemplos en el texto o bien anota algún otro que te venga a la mente.

Por ejemplo:
ice crema = Crema helada = Helado

sister-in- law = hermana por ley = cuñada

football =pie + balon = balonpie

En el texto vienen varias palabras compuestas, ¿Podrías decir que significan a partir

de las palabras que las componen?


  1. sunlight________________________________________________________

  2. mirror-like______________________________________________________

  3. raindrop________________________________________________________

  4. _______________________________________________________________

  5. _______________________________________________________________



Actividad 8 (10 min )
Resuelve el siguiente crucigrama y encuentra la palabra escondida.














9

















































1

 

 




 

 













1. The planet we live in







2

 




 

 













2. To drop down from a higher level







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3. Energy that comes from the sun
















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4. On

























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5. At the back of someone or something



















6

 

 




 
















6. A small amount of liquid that forms a round shape



















7

 

 






















7. Arc

























8

 

 

 













8. Space above the earth

















































9. Today you learned about



















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