Un sufijo es una letra, o grupo de letras, que se añade al final de una palabra para formar una nueva palabra. Normalmente cambia el tipo de palabra (sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo, etc.) pero no el significado:
ADJETIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE SUSTANTIVOS
SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE ADJETIVOS
-dom también: kingdom
SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE VERBOS
-ure también: leisure
SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE OTROS SUSTANTIVOS
Sustantivos – personas
-er writer, painter
-or decorador, actor
Pronunciation: Los sufijos nunca llevan el acento:
Lucky hopeless colourful industrial comprehensible attractive
Put each word in the correct column. In one column there are two words:
Create creator creation creatively creativity creative
Add these words to the table. Complete each column using suffixes when necessary
Which suffix do you need to change the words in each list into adjectives? Remember, you sometimes need to change the spelling.
Cloud, dirt, rain -y
understand, reason, wash
logic, economic, historic
care, harm, use (2 suffixes)
attract, support, construct
access, convert, comprehend
Now complete each of these sentences with an adjective
Smoking can be ________________ to your health
His parents are very ________________. He can always rely on them to help him
My town is very _______________ . It’s easy to get there
We have to put the customs of the Ancient Egyptians in their proper _____________ context.
If I find a car at a ________________ price I’ll buy it.
NOUN SUFFIXES TEENAGE
For many teenagers, daily stress is a very real problem. It often starts for them at school. 'I just hear the word exam and I panic”, says 16-year-old Joanna Smith from Telford.
Even when you don't have to do exams, there's the pressure of too much work, bullying, problems, with friendships, loneliness and just wanting to be liked. And at home there might be family problems too, from arguments with your parents to dealing with a divorce. Then there's “ the 'bigger picture”, since young people are more likely to worry about the environment, crime and unemployment problems.
Just as there are many causes for stress, the way it manifests itself also varies. Stress can turn you off your food, stop you sleeping properly and even be the reason for stomach pains, backache or a stiff neck. Irrational fears, are also common. That's when one bad mark gives you the impression you are a total failure.
-dom -ity -ety -ness -ment -ion -ure -ship ut for all the negative effects, stress can actually be good for you. A small amount of it can help you to work better, and too little stress can result in boredom. The key is balance. You must learn how to beat off unhelpful levels of anxiety. The highs of being a teenager-the freedom, the excitement of trying new things, the possibility of so many new experiences ahead of you - are mixed with the lows too. According to Joanna, you needn't worry too much. 'You ought to remember that problems will come up all through life, but I think you have to experience the downs to really appreciate the good bits.'
Find words with each of these suffixes in the text. What do all the words have in common?
Choose the correct word in each of these rules.
The suffixes -dom. -ity. -ety. -ness are normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns.
The suffixes -ment, -ion, -ure are normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns.
The suffix -ship is normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns
real sad equal express hesitate arrange develop happy weak stupid dark impress
Change these words into nouns and put each one in the correct column.
3 Complete each sentence with a noun from above
a You have to stop dreaming and accept the ______________of the situation.
b He went out into the _____________of the night.
c Helen accepted the present without a moment's__________________.
d Shall we make an ______________ to meet next Friday?
e 'Cheers, mate' is a colloquial _____________in English.
f What are the plans for future _______________ in this country?
Work in pairs. Take it in turns to say a base word from this page. If your partner can make a noun, he/she chooses another word. When one of you cannot make a noun. the other player scores a point and 'serves' the next word.
S: Freedom. Stupid
B: No! Stupidity. 15-0. Friend
Change these words into nouns, using suffixes
Equal hesitate impress develop stupid weak happy arrange
Complete each sentence with one of the nouns.
When you meet someone for the first time, try to make a good _________________ on them
There should be _______________________ between all different races
Jane has a _________________ for chocolate biscuits
Technological _______________ is very important for progress
I can’t believe the ___________________ of people who throw litter in the street
Add a correct suffix (-ful or –less) to the following nouns in order to complete the text below. Use each word only one.
Care use hope help thought power As I was walking next to the sea, I saw a man trying to swim to the shore, but he couldn’t because the waves were too __________________ . I thought it was very ___________________ of him to go swimming in the sea when the waves were so high. As each wave hit him, he became more and more _____________________. There was nothing he could do so I had to do something for him.
I found a rope which I thought could be _______________ . I threw it to him and he managed to reach the shore. When I pulled him out of the water, he was shaking. He said that he had been sure the situation was _______________________ .
I offered to take him home in my car. He thanked me for being so ________________________
Add a suitable suffix (-able, -al, -ive or –ous) to the following nouns or verbs to form adjectives. Use a dictionary to help you and make any necessary changes.
Not every word which ends with the letters –able, -al or –ive is an adjective. Study the following groups of words and decide which word in each group is not an adjective. Use a dictionary if necessary 1. forgivable • vegetable • countable