African and african american studies

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“US medical mandates for access to contraceptives: What is the impact of El Paso women’s strategic border crossing on their information levels about oral contraceptive pills?”
The state's control of women's access to oral contraceptive pills is distinctive on both sides of the El Paso-Juárez border. However, borders are not containers that trap ideas and politics inside their boundaries. These fronterizas, who take advantage of their unique ability to cross the border and return home, display different levels of knowledge about oral contraceptive pills. This analysis compares such knowledge levels among crossers and non-crossers, drawing on a sample of 500 women.

Beata Halicka,

Universidad Europea Viadrina
“How to write a history of borderland? East Central Europe in transnational perspective”
Radical nationalism was officially banished from European politics after 1945. Although an important goal in process of European integration was to weaken the nationalism, the postwar “master narratives” of history in various country of Europe were still written from a national perspective. Especially in East Central Europe historian constructed a linear chronological narrative of a society or nation and located it on an imagined or already acquired territory presenting a continuity in terms of time, space and ethnicity.

Borders in East Central Europe were in 20th century drawn by force and as a result appeared new borderlands like Polish-German, Polish-Ukrainian or between Czechoslovak and Hungary after 1945. Dealing with the history of those regions, certain persons or places were claimed for the history of a nation, although their allegiance was debatable. It took long time until it has been generally accepted that for example cities like Wroclaw and Lviv were shaped by various cultures and nations. Those borderlands were ruled by different empires for long time and because of this their history cannot be written within a national framework. An alternative serves the transnational history which studies the ways in which cultures use and appropriate cultural goods of foreign origins.

Bianca Szytniewski

University Nijmegen & University Utrecht
“Practices, networks and experiences of Ukrainian daily border crossers at Medyka”
This contribution will examine border work at the external EU border between Poland and Ukraine, with a particular focus on circular trade and shopping mobilities and daily life experiences of Ukrainian border crossers at Medyka. These border crossers explore differences and opportunities that result from the state border, something that may be found in the Polish-Ukrainian border context for decades (Byrska-Szklarczyk 2012, Egbert 2006, Wolczuk 2002). What is more, this form of cross-border mobility “often goes against the intentions of planners and policymakers, and may include creative subversions of existing conditions: bending rules and identifying loopholes“ (Löfgren 2008). Although current petty trade and shopping mobilities are officially recognised as leisure or tourism. It contains mostly creative and functional practices, of which many are not only a part of everyday life, but are also a way to survive (Wolczuk 2002). Not only is it interesting to find out in what way people experience and make use of opportunities for cross-border trade and shopping practices provided by the state border, but also to understand the role of these practices in reshaping the border? How ‘closed’ is the external border of the EU for everyday border work?

Carine De Sy

Idaho State University
“Linguistic Borders in Louisiana”
At the time Louisiana joined the Union in 1812, the majority of the population spoke French due to three reasons: first, the numerous European plantation owners who spoke standard French, second, the Acadians (Cajuns) who were deported from Acadia (what is now Nova Scotia, Canada) by the British after they won the French-Indian War, and last, the Creoles who were imported from Africa as slaves to work on the plantations. Louisiana is de facto bilingual (French/English). Using the “Narrative Policy Framework” (NPF), this research project tries to answer the research questions “Are French-speakers treated differently than English-speakers in Louisiana?” and “Are Creole-French-speakers treated differently than Cajun-French-speakers?” Data are collected from Government sources, i.e. the Louisiana Constitution, traditional media sources, i.e. the New York Times, electronic sources, i.e. Google News, and social media, i.e. YouTube. This paper is a work-in-progress, so the research findings are still unknown at this point in time.

Christian Leuprecht,

Royal Military College of Canada and Queen’s University
Todd Hataley,

Royal Military College of Canada and Queen’s University

Alexandra Green,

Queen’s University

“A Comparative Analysis of Border Security Strategies across Six Canadian Regions: Layered Security in the Prairies”
Prairie characteristics such as low mobility, agricultural goods, and the need for threat inspection away from the border necessitate a layered approach to border security. This approach differs from other “at the border” security inspections, and has a proven track-record across the Prairies. Compared to Ontario’s bustling border crossings—teeming with tourists and a diversity of goods—border security across the Prairies appears to be relatively inconsequential: few people live near the actual border and fewer still interact with the crossings. Low mobility, agricultural goods, and little cross border collaboration make the Prairies different from the rest of Canada. However, taken as a laboratory of experimentation the security climate offers insights into not only different approaches to border security across the country, but also alternative models to the “security-at-the-physical-border” approach. Goods crossing the Prairie borders are largely agricultural. Processes are then put into place before the product reaches the border to ensure that there is no bio-security threat. Seeds, meat, and other products could not be inspected at the physical border because they require an expert for inspection.

Christophe Sohn,

Luxembourg Institute of Socio-economic Research
“The Border as a Resource: Reframing the Concept”
The capacity of borders to constitute resources and not only barriers, obstacles or key components of larger control apparatuses is increasingly recognized within border studies. However, the conceptualization of borders as resources for various registers of social action has remained somewhat elusive. Indeed, the underlying logics behind the mobilization of borders as resources often remain unexplained if not at least considered under the enabling capacity of social structuration processes. The aim of this paper is to reframe the concept of borders as resources and offer insight into the reasons and mechanisms that give its meaning and scope. The key aspect and therefore the starting point of my inquiry is to consider the notion of resource as being part of a process of production of a socially valued reality. As such a resource does not exist in itself but is always invented. More specifically, the following questions will be considered: Which production processes mobilize borders as a resource? What aspects of borders are mobilized as a resource? How are border-related resources activated? By whom and for what purposes?

Christopher Brown,

New Mexico State University
“Public participation in watershed management on the US-Mexico border: lessons from the Colorado and Tijuana River Basins”
Past research over the last several decades has documented a lack of public participation in efforts by US and Mexican agencies involved with watershed management in binational watersheds on the US-Mexico border. In the last 10 years, two departures from the “business as usual” mode of operation of agencies have come to light, efforts in the Colorado River Basin that lead to signing of International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) Minute 317 in 2010, and a more recent effort in the Tijuana River Basin that has lead to the signing of IBWC Minute 320 in 2015. Both developments reflect concerted efforts by stakeholders to engage on regional issues of importance. The outcomes also reflect an increasing willingness of the IBWC to include public participation in watershed management. In this paper, I address the following questions: How did the stakeholders manage to “get a seat at the table “with the IBWC to develop the terms of engagement contained in these Minutes and also the work that is unfolding? What “rules of engagement” of the various binational mechanisms came out of these Minutes, and how will they function in the future? What lessons from these experiences can be extracted that can inform binational watershed management in other basins in North America?

Consuelo Pequeño Rodriguez,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
“Transformaciones en las condiciones laborales en la frontera México-Estados Unidos: individuos, redes e instituciones”
No Abstract

Dhananjay Tripathi,

South Asian University
“Explaining Unintended Consequences of Globalisation and Contesting Returning of Borders and Walls in International Politics”
International community celebrated fall of the Berlin Wall enthusiastically. It thrilled the people with a hope that new world order will positively change their lives. True to these expectations, the process of globalisation in the post –cold war phase opened immense opportunities for the international community. Unfortunately, despite attaining some early gains we failed to sustain it. In post cold-war world financial globalisation superseded social and political sides of globalisation. As a result we stalled the spread of democracy, ignored ruthless and undemocratic political establishments, destroyed environmental balance, and economically created categories of ‘super-beneficiaries’ and ‘immensely miserable’. While these socio-political contradictions of economic globalisation acquired disturbing heights, 9/11 terrorist attacks had further shattered the faith of international community. Thereafter world once again been perceived as volatile and insecure. Ironically, at present we are economically much vulnerable, strategically less secure and psychologically getting extra dependent on borders. This paper is intended to critically engage with the process of globalisation, while arguing that solution lies in ‘genuine globalisation’ and not in ‘re-bordering’ of the world. The ‘borderless world’ has the solution for human miseries, provided we globalise responsibly and certain ethical socio-political norms are followed.

Donna Lybecker,

Idaho State University
Mark McBeth,

Idaho State University

Carine De Sy,

Idaho State University

Adam Brewer,

Idaho State University

“A Tale of Two Borders:  A Comparative Analysis of the Social Constructions Characterizing the North American Borders”
In this paper we argue that boundaries represent policy realities that are often constructed through policy narratives.  While historically borders were demarcated and managed via elite institutions, increasing access to new social media appears to be shifting the process of bordering—the process of demarcating and managing borders.  This paper looks at both the US-Mexico and the US-Canada border as presented through traditional and new media, specifically YouTube. The paper examines how the media narratives play a role in the construction of the concept of these borders, and how the “people of the borders” are perceived by others.  Finally, the paper looks at how these narratives effect possible policy development.

Edward Boyle,

Center for Asia Pacific Future Studies
“Examining Japan’s Borders under Globalization”
The past five years has seen the development of a border studies research community within Japan, but while the conditions have been created for the study of Japan’s borders on a national basis, this has yet to be translated into understanding the significance of Japan’s borders in an era of global transformation. The opportunity provided by the Borders in Globalization initiative shall enable both the effects of globalization upon Japan’s borders and the global significance of the transformation in Japan’s borders to be properly contextualized and understood. The Borders in Globalization project remains dominated by western research institutions, and the incorporation of a research team from Japan within the project greatly increases its global reach. The history and present circumstances of Japan’s borders are unique, but at the same time Japan is not immune from the pressures that are exerting such transformations in borders elsewhere. The position of Japan within the larger project is significant on two fronts; in its possession of primarily maritime rather than continental borders, and in the absence of overarching regional integration.

Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly,

University of Victoria
“Canada’s Borders in Globalization”
Borders in Globalization (BIG) is premised on the assumption that the territorial framework for understanding borders is fundamentally being challenged through new technologies of information and communication that are now regularly applied in the monitoring, surveillance and security of borders. Rather than being territorial, new borders are potentially a-territorial. They are for instance biometric, and, also, possibly everywhere. This process, however, is progressive and takes varied forms across the world. International boundaries, walled borders, and other bordering policies are still very much part of our world but new borders and bordering processes are also appearing. This paper looks at how these varied bordering processes are transforming Canada’s borders.

Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly,

University of Victoria
Sarah Colgrove,

University of Victoria

Niemann Zajac,

University of Victoria

“Indigenous Borders in British Columbia: Challenges to Boundary Marking”
This presentation will review the laws of the land in mapping the interface of indigenous and state jurisdictions in co-management of lands in British Columbia. A history of unresolved land claims characterizes the relationship between indigenous and subsequent ex-European land division and land use in Canada’s western most Province. Yet, in recent years, as land claims are being addressed and settled, new approaches to bordering territory are emerging. These approaches are increasingly collaborative and sustainable approaches that offer new directions for co-management. This paper will draw suggestions and implications those systems have for the economic borders of indigenous communities.

Erika Tatiana Ayala García,

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander
Eduardo Gabriel Osorio Sánchez,

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

Jesús Ernesto Urbina Cárdenas,

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

“La Mujer y el Conflicto Armado en Norte de Santander”
El escenario de Colombia frente al post-acuerdo representa intensos desafíos que dependen de la firma del acuerdo de paz con las FARC, luego de un conflicto armado interno que lleva más de 50 años, en el que los civiles se han visto vinculados, presentándose la vulneración permanente de sus derechos, a través de fenómenos como el desplazamiento forzado, abusos sexuales, homicidios, secuestros, torturas, actos terroristas, entre otros; donde los colectivos más vulnerables y expuestos han sido los niños, niñas, adolescentes y las mujeres. Esta comunicación se origina en la investigación “La reparación simbólica de la mujer víctima del conflicto armado en Colombia a través del arte y la arquitectura” y tiene como objetivo identificar y comprender el papel que ha desempeñado el colectivo femenino dentro del conflicto armado en los municipios fronterizos del territorio colombiano, haciendo énfasis en Norte de Santander, reconociendo a partir de una metodología documental los diversos casos, experiencias y reparaciones propiciadas a las mujeres víctimas del conflicto, teniendo en cuenta que dentro del desarrollo de este proceso se han generado graves vulneraciones a sus derechos fundamentales, siendo constantemente sometidas a desapariciones forzadas, abusos sexuales, violencia sexual, reclutamiento y desplazamiento; entre otros.

Fabienne LELOUP,

Catholic University of Louvain
“Local Cross-Border Governance in Europe Environment and Health”
Especially in the context of the European Union, the roles of local authorities and private operators have been diversified. Our paper is based on one evolution connected to these changes - the emergence of some innovative processes of local cross-border governance - and in the case of two sectors: environment and health. At the border, public or private actors from one side are not in a position to dictate to the others. For creating cooperation, floating rules are required. The connected local authorities depend on European policies but also on each central state. Then, local public authorities deal with these different scales of decision and who makes the decision, who implements it and how he does it are questioned. In the sectors of health and environment, numerous additional operators (such as the health insurance companies or the ecological associations) are included in the making decision process. It is important to note that all of this is discussed in the context of internal European open borders and especially open borders creating spaces of contact (Ratti, 1992). Numerous hypotheses may be related to the development of “new processes of governance.”

Flor Urbina Barrera,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

“Migrantes no viajeros, experiencias indocumentadas y laborales entre jóvenes fronterizos de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua”

En esta ponencia se exponen los hallazgos de trabajo de campo antropológico realizado entre jóvenes juarenses que nos permite confrontar al estereotipo del emigrante sureño, que emprende el viaje en una trayectoria hacia un lejano destino. Igualmente, desvela los imaginarios de la bien articulada vida fronteriza transnacional. A través de las narrativas e historias de vida es posible identificar las experiencias migratorias entre jóvenes juarenses que buscan edificar mejores condiciones de vida para ellos y sus familias, así como la posibilidad de financiar la trayectoria escolar. Estos jóvenes provienen de grupos domésticos en donde la experiencia migratoria y de residencia en los Estados Unidos está presente en casi todos los integrantes del grupo familiar, sin embargo, las experiencias también están atravesadas por el ingreso ilegal, el trabajo indocumentado, las detenciones y las deportaciones por lo que estos jóvenes participan desde la infancia en esta dinámica transfronteriza. Sobresale a la vez, que es recurrente el objetivo de buscar trabajo en los Estados Unidos para lograr autofinanciar los estudios universitarios en instituciones educativas de Ciudad Juárez.

Francisco Lara Valencia,

Arizona State University
“Adapting border cities to climate change: a green infrastructure network for Ambos Nogales”
Since their foundation, Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona have struggled with recurrent flooding, and its aftermath of human and material loss. The severity of flooding has increased over time as a sprawling conurbation replaced open space, green areas, and waterways with hard surfaces. The importance of the functionality provided by vanishing natural landscapes to Ambos Nogales augments as climate change alters precipitation patterns, and urbanization intensifies surface water runoffs. This scenario highlights the urgency of restoring lost biophysical features of local landscapes to help both cities to adapt to climate change. This paper presents a plan for a green infrastructure network for Ambos Nogales. The network includes a combination of linear and non-linear elements with the potential to add hectares of green spaces in the form of neighborhood, city, and regional parks. It is argued the a green infrastructure networks connecting natural and built green spaces can be the central component of an long term adaptation strategy to climate change and sustainability of border cities. The governance requirements for a green infrastructure adaptation strategy to climate change in the US-Mexico border context are discussed.

Franck Billé,

UC Berkeley
“Territorial Phantom Pains: Manchuria, Loss, Imagination”
After decades of fraught relations, which involved the hermetic closure of their international border for close to twenty years, China and Russia finally resolved their longstanding territorial disputes a few years ago. The last remaining issue, focusing on the Bolshoy Ussuriysky (黑瞎子) and Tarabarov (银龙) Islands, was resolved by mutual agreement in 2004 (implemented in 2008), with Russia ceding Tarabarov and half of Bolshoy Ussuriysky to China. This transfer of ownership took place without referendum in either country, eliciting in fact considerable anger on Internet forums in both Russia and China. My paper will be looking at this misalignment between, on the one hand, an official discourse that celebrates the successful resolution of all territorial disputes between the two countries, and on the other, the persistent popular views that the decision taken by the two governments is unsatisfactory. Indeed, a considerable section of the Chinese population resents the Nerchinsk and Peking Treaties (1689 and 1860) which are seen as unfair (cf. Callahan 2010) and continues to view vast tracts of the Russian Far East as “historically Chinese” – referring in fact to the region as to “Outer Manchuria” (外东北).

Fuminori Kawakubo,

Chuo Gakuin University
“Technologization of Border Security: Critical perspectives on the: War against Terrorism”
The aim of my presentation is to examine the technological dimensions of border security within the North American continent in the post 9/11 context. The realities of the post 9/11 security environment at the center of the U.S. homeland security lead us to conclude that new technologically-oriented security measures have become the major tendency at the internal and external borders of continents: surveillance devices, biometrics and information technology etc. They have basically emerged as preferred policy solutions to the conundrum of screening for “risk factors” such as terrorists, illegal migrants and drugs into the United States through its international borders while facilitating flows of legitimate people and goods in the age of globalization.

Gerd Battrup,

University of South Denmark
“Rebordering Europe. Rebordering Scandinavia”
Through the autumn of 2015, many internal borders in Europe have been closed temporarily in response to the flow of refugees and migrants fleeing to Europe as well as the terrorist attacks in Paris in November. This is also true in the Nordic countries, where Sweden and Norway in November 2015 imposed temporary border controls. Sweden, which has received about 160,000 asylum seekers, explains that it cannot accommodate more refugees and migrants. Other European countries, especially Denmark, must take more responsibility. The Danish government has rejected the Swedish request based on a lack of legal basis and because border controls might harm the Danish-German border region. In national debates, the government has also underlined that intensified border controls could lead to an increased number of asylum seekers. The Swedish government has as a response threatened to introduce carrier sanctions for public transport crossing the bridge across Øresund without controlling the passengers’ ID. If realized, this could lead to a severe setback for the Øresund Region, the only cross-border metropolitan region in Northern Europe. Based on the concepts of “crimmigation”, “securitization” and "moral panics" the paper will examine the Swedish and Danish discourses of refugees, internal security and cross-border integration.

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