African and african american studies

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Ross E. Burkhart,

Boise State University
Pierre M. Atlas,

Marian University
"Of Lawless Frontiers and Peaceable Kingdoms: The Legacy of Myth, Government, and Guns in the North American West"
The United States is more violent than Canada and it always has been. Even as the death toll from mass shootings mounts by the month in the United States, most Americans remain culturally and politically resistant to the sorts of gun control measures that are commonplace in Canada. America’s unique gun culture is embedded in the history, imagery and especially the mythology of the American frontier. Canada had its own frontier experience and has its own history of gun ownership, but there has never been a parallel Canadian gun culture. How can we explain these differences? America’s western mythology romanticizes and exaggerates the level of interpersonal violence in the Old West, downplays the role of the federal government, and celebrates its outlaws and “the law of the gun.” Canada’s western mythology tends to downplay the actual violence and lawlessness that did exist on the prairies as well as the negative aspects of its First Nations policies, and lionizes the national government and the rule of law embodied in the scarlet-coated Mountie. Today, America’s frontier mythology supports a political culture of individualism and skepticism toward central authority, while Canada’s counterpart helps to undergird the political culture of a well-ordered and peaceful community.

Prosper Bernard Jr,

City University of New York
"(Re)examining Canada from a Comparative Political Economy Perspective: The Effects of Liberalization on Labor Market, Finance, and Income Distribution"
From a variety of capitalism perspectives, Canada is grouped with other liberal market economies such as Great Britain, the United States, and Australia. Reinforcing this consensus are cross-national studies that reveal trends in Canada that are also observed in other LMEs. This paper has two purposes. First, much of what the CPE literatures tell us about how the Canadian political economy works has been extracted from cross-national statistical results and based on brief descriptive overviews. This paper seeks to spotlight Canada from a comparative perspective, focusing on trends in its labor market, financial sector, and income distribution. The aim is to position Canada within the LME group by showing where it deviates from and verges on LME averages from the early 1980s to 2010s, a period in which all advanced political economies have witnessed important changes resulting from liberalization. Second, recent CPE works have significantly sharpened our understanding of labor market dualization and government responses to the Great Recession of 2008-09. This paper will test specific hypotheses stemming from selected works (Thelen, Bermeo, Pontusson) against evidence from Canada. The goal is to assess the applicability of theoretical advances in CPE by seeing how well they can be leveraged in a Canada-specific case study.

Ross E. Burkhart,

Boise State University
"Plus ça change? Politics, Polls, and Canadian Election Forecasting"
The 19 October 2015 federal election in Canada was the subject of intense election forecasting by various statistical modelers. Characteristic of these modeling efforts was how far the forecasts were off from the final result, vastly underestimating the Liberal Party seat gains. One hypothesis for these far-off forecasts was their reliance on public opinion polling, which was assumed to be accurate, but evidently was less so than advertised.  How would a model that relies on classical variables, such as the state of the economy, the popularity of the government, and structural causes, fare in the forecasting realm? I test such a model to compare it to the published forecasts.

Neal Carter,

Brigham Young University Idaho
"A Personality at a Distance Profile of Justin Trudeau"

This paper constructs a personality at a distance profile of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Using his interventions in Question Period and interviews, we employ Peg Hermann's Leadership Trait Analysis to develop a profile in comparison with other Canadian and Western Leaders. We test whether there is a significant difference in results from these two sources of information. Some scholars have asserted that both sources should produce similar results, but we will test that claim. In addition, we will try to indicate which foreign policy profile Trudeau is most likely to fit.

Jerry Croft,

Oklahoma State University
"Perceptions of the Geography of Canada by Some Students in Oklahoma and Iowa"
I was always a little surprised by American college students thinking that Canada was just like the USA except for sport preferences and that Canada was much colder so I devised a short exam for my students as we approached the study of Canada. The results indicate that my students do not know hardly any accurate information about the country of Canada in cultural & economic reals but perhaps the lowest level of knowledge is found in the political realm.

Katherine Kelaidis,

Community College of Aurora
"Back in Greece, Back in Price: The Dual Diaspora of the Greek of Carbon County"
This paper will seek to explore the idea of a "2nd Diaspora" among immigrant communities through the lens of the descendants of the early 20th-century Greek immigrants to Carbon County, Utah. I will argue that the close cultural, familial, and historical ties to the area maintained by the descendants of those immigrants who migrated out of the region constitutes a dual diasporatic identity almost (but not entirely) unique to the American context. I will also explore the consequences of this kind of identity.

Shirley McDonald,

University of British Columbia Okanagan
"Agricultural Labourer and Activism in Western Canada"
My paper explores the embodied experiences of workers in Canada’s agricultural sector and of activists who seek remedies for their exploitation in a dangerous and injury-prone labour sector. I draw from an interview with Darlene Dunlop, who worked as a seasonal farm worker for 25 years in Alberta, the only Canadian province that excludes farm workers from employment standards laws (including child labour laws) and health and safety laws, and prevents them from forming and/or joining unions. In 2004, Dunlop became an activist with her spouse Eric Musekamp and co-founded the Farmworkers Union of Alberta (a union in name only) to seek changes in Alberta’s labour policies. I also draw from the research of Jill Bucklaschuk, whose interviews with temporary foreign workers (TFWs) in the meat-processing industry in Manitoba reveal not only the daily embodied (physical, mental, and emotional) experiences of TFWs, but also their vulnerability as non-citizen labourers.

Stephen T. Moore,

Central Washington University
"Looking North for a 'Middle Way': Prohibition and the Canadian Origins of American Repeal"
When the United States finally abandoned its “noble experiment” in 1933, it did so for a variety of political, economic, and social reasons. And it did so in part because of the torrent of liquor that flowed from its Canadian neighbors to the north. Almost always overlooked in the historiography of prohibition, however, was that Canada was more than just a source of illicit alcohol. Canadians also provided an alternative to prohibition. As the 1920s came to a close, and as the failures of national prohibition became ever more apparent in the United States, Canada offered a “middle way,” a ready model that Americans were only too ready to embrace. 

Lawrence D. Taylor,

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico
"Attempting the Almost Impossible: Frobisher Bay as Canada's Bid to Build Its Own 'Deep Freeze' Base in the Arctic, 1957-1963"
The paper analyzes the ways in which the U.S. Operation Deep Freeze programs of the 1950's for building permanent scientific research stations in the Antarctic, the most important being the Amundsen-Scott South Pole base, as well as the large air base at Thule, Greenland, influenced the Canadian government's decision to construct a similar complex at Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island. Like the U.S. and the Soviet Union, Canada also wanted to prove that it was possible to build its own modern "lunar" settlement in a cold and inhospitable environment. The paper traces the growth in the strategic importance of Frobisher Bay in the post-WWII period as a midway point between the nearest U.S. continental air bases and the American air base at Thule. It also considers the role of the Diefenbaker government (1957-63) in choosing to build a major military-civil complex at Frobisher Bay as one of the key projects of the "Northern Vision" policy. The paper concludes with an assessment of the reasons for the collapse of the Frobisher Bay venture as well as its implications for subsequent Canadian development efforts in the Arctic.


Debra D. Andrist,

Sam Houston State University
Debra D. Andrist,

Sam Houston State University

“Insult To Injury: Domestic Violence Against Latinas Social & Personal Control Techniques In The Latino World”
As French social anthropologist/literary critic/theorist, René Girard, maintains in Violence & the Sacred, the oldest means of social control is physical violence I add that the most ubiquitous form of physical violence for personal and social control is gender-based, domestic violence, especially in overtly masculine-dominated cultures, like the Hispanic cultures so stereotypically characterized as they are by the (in)famous machismo. Gender-based violence can be physical or psychological abuse or victimization. This victimization can be either perpetrated by strangers in the course of another crime or as the crime itself or as relationship violence, particularly by those males in a supposed trust position (family, partners, etc.) with the victim. In terms of the latter, international surveys indicate that an estimated ten percent to 50% of all women report having been physically assaulted at some point in their lives by their male partners and reporting statistics are very spotty. In the U.S., estimates are that perhaps one-third of such assaults over-all are reported. Such domestic violence exacts a heavy toll as a critical public health problem, as well as a serious violation of basic human rights, plus the socio-economic ramifications world-wide. This paper addresses the statistics and manifestations of domestic violence towards Latinas in the U.S., both in reality and as represented in literature by Latinas writers and/or artists.

John Francis Burke,

St. Edward’s University
“Building Bridges, Not Walls Between Cultures in Congregations”
Although other studies have emphasized strategies such as personal conversion and the use of concepts from psychology of communication studies to deal with cultural diversity in faith-based congregations, my study argues that especially for congregations with large English-speaking and Spanish-speaking groups, one has to understanding the differences between the Christian spiritualties of these groups if one is to bring about constructive intercultural engagement. After a brief review of the literature on intercultural ministry, my paper presents how the spiritualties that inform most Anglos and most Latinos are quite different. Most European-American congregants or for that matter most congregants in the Northeast and Midwest United States have a faith that has emerged from the crucible of the Reformation-Counter Reformation debates. On the other hand, Latinos, especially those coming north from Mexico and Central America have a spirituality that never went through the Reformation. Instead, this spirituality is a fascinating combination of medieval Catholic, native indigenous, and African heritages. In general, the Reformation spirituality tends to be more individualistic and the Latino spirituality more holistic. My paper then illustrates that when surface conflicts emerge over liturgy, finances, and other matters, what is actually ensuing is an underlying tension between different spiritualties. Only by enabling these cultural groups to understand each other’s different perspectives, can one begin to build bridges not walls between the groups. My study closes with some concrete ways to bring about such consciousness-raising and consequent integration. In addition, much more so than previous studies, my study accents the power relationships in church decision-making structures. Political science analysis provides an alternative way for examining intercultural relations in congregations. In the end, the study captures that all too often congregations that are of mixed racial, ethnic, or linguistic background still tend to privilege English-speaking European-Americans and this is unacceptable if one really believes in fostering Christian community. Fostering unity-in-diversity is not just enlightenment about cultural differences but rather is the pursuit of justice.

Laurence Armand French,

University of New Hampshire; Western New Mexico University
Magdaleno Manzanarez,

Western New Mexico University

“Anchor Babies and the anti-Hispanic furor in American Politics: A 21 Century resurgence of Manifest Destiny”
Republican Presidential candidate, Donald Trump, has instilled a chilling element to the 2016 Presidential race by invoking strong anti-Hispanic furor by claiming that Mexican and other Latin America mothers illegally enter the United States for the specific purpose of giving birth thereby automatically claiming citizenship for the infant.  These so-called anchor babies are then supposedly used to open the gate for other family members to become US citizens.  Trump further stirs up anti-Hispanic sentiments by labelling undocumented Mexicans (and Latin Americans) as being drug dealers, rapists, and violent criminals…contaminating white America.  This appears to be a reoccurrence of past ethnic/racial prejudices prominent among proponents of white-supremacy under the dictates of Manifest Destiny.  Our paper traces the origin of the 14th Amendment to its post-Civil War provision for citizenship for Freedmen and their families, while, at the same time, providing adaptations needed to accommodate American Indians/Alaska Natives (Elk v. Wilkins).  We also provide the example of cross-border accommodations for Mexican families within the pre-Gadsden border region of New Mexico whereby Mexican babies are born in Deming where the closest hospital exits.

Alejandro Latínez,

Bristol Community College
“Maids' Cultural Accent in Films: Recognizing a History of Labor
The leading role of Hispanic/Latino women in the current decade is a remarkable aspect in the history of USA cinematography. Despite of this undeniable significance, it is argued that the leading role does not imply a critical distance from stereotypes about labor. In this context, the present paper intends to answer the question: What is the cultural negotiation played in the representation of the maid in Hispanic/Latino films? The answer will allow to identify one essential aspect in the construction of our identity neglected by cultural researchers: the negotiation between cultural expectations about Hispanic/Latino women’s labor described in mass-media and the cultural representation of women’s labor in Latin America. Portraits of Hispanic/Latino women as maid are not made in a vacuum; they echo a historical background that is the result of the combination of actual labor conditions and narratives of labor found in well-established tradition of soup operas in the Hispanic world. In this approach the analysis will focus on recent films produced in the United States.

Stephen Miller,

Texas A&M University
“Society and Spirituality in Alejandro Morales' "River of Angels”
Morales' "River of Angels" (2014) may be his master work. It combines two familiar themes: a social history of Chicanos in Los Angeles, CA; and, a study of how a spirituality grew from the myths of the peoples indigenous to the Los Angeles' Basin. Key to the success of the novel is its modulated presentation of how those myths resisted the growth of Los Angeles grew and its River was contained in concrete channels.

Colleen Murray,

University of Nevada, Reno
J. Guillermo Villalobos,

University of Nevada, Reno

Lindsay Pérez,

University of Nevada, Reno

Karen L. Camelo,

University of Nevada, Reno

“Waiting Until We Can Return Home: Mixed-Document Status Immigrant Families and Plans to Relocate”
Mexican and Central American (MCA) descendants constitute the largest percentage of undocumented immigrants and families with mixed documentation status in the United States. The media and politicians assume these families want to remain in the USA and seek a path to citizenship. There is discussion of building a wall to keep them out. But western states have a history of people moving back and forth across the border, not just a one-way crossing to the US. This study examined whether immigrant families expect to permanently stay in the US. The multi-method study included interviews with 44 adults from mixed-status immigrant families either seeking free legal assistance at immigration clinics or through a campus Latino Center. Themes reflected plans to stay in the US only until they were able to go home (due to safety or economic reasons). Many did not plan to remain or to seek a path to citizenship. There was longing for home and family in MCA, as well as for familiar surroundings, customs and community support individuals received there when in need. They did not report such support in the US. Younger adults were more likely to expect to remain in the US but recognized the dilemma this will cause for their parents who would be torn between remaining with their children in the US or rejoining their siblings, extended family, and aging parents in MCA. This research highlights an important understudied group: immigrant mixed-status families who live in multiple, intersecting worlds, and it challenges widely-held beliefs.

Sharaf Rehman,

University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
David Hinojosa,

University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

“Hispanic-American Students' Perceptions of Learning in Groups”
Previous research suggests that while working in groups, students learn from each other, their overall group performance is often better than their individual performance, and more often than not, projects get accomplished. Despite such positive outcomes, not all students seem to be in favor of group projects or group work. The present study reports on the attitudes and perceptions of 242 Hispanic-American college students about group projects and process. The authors hypothesize that since the Hispanic-American students feel closer to a collectivist culture than an individualistic culture, the subjects may show a lower level of resentment towards group work than their counterparts in the mainstream. The paper also reports on the difference in attitudes based on gender, relational status, and age.

David A. Swanson,

University of California Riverside
Richard Verdugo,

National Education Association (retired)

“Language in America: Diversity, Dominance, and Cultural Maintenance, 1910-2010”
Viewing Language as a marker of ethnicity, we use census data and a range of indices to examine language usage change in the United States over a 100 year period, 1910 to 2010. Our research is guided by three major questions. First, how much language diversity exists over the 100 year period? Second, how dominant is the English language from 1910 to 2010? And, third, what factors affect the odds of speaking a non-English language. In regard to the first question, we find that there is considerable language diversity over the 100 year period. However, only three languages, other than English, have survived in the top ten languages over the 100 year period: French, German, and Spanish. In regard to the second question, we find that English language dominance has declined over the 100 year period and that the biggest reason for this decline was the rise of the Spanish speaking population. In regard to the third question, we looked at it in two parts. In the first part, we examined location and find that increased residential segregation among foreign born enclaves has increased the relative numbers of non-English speakers in them over time. In the second part, we estimated a logistic regression model with foreign born status, foreign born enclaves and age as predictors for the years 1940 to 2010 and found that both foreign-born status and foreign-born enclaves greatly increased the odds of speaking a non-English language. While the impact of enclaves increased over time, as they simultaneously became more segregated. However, the most important determinant of speaking a non-English language was being foreign born.



James G. Linn,

Optimal Solutions in Healthcare and International Development
Steven E. Brown,

Institute on Disability Culture
Cynthia D. Jackson,

Walden University

Meharry Medical College
Debra R. Wilson,

Tennessee State University

Walden University
Kylie Boazman,

University of Buffalo

"Simulating Disability in Hungary: The Construction and Performance of Disabled Bodies, Minds, and Identities"
The Invisible Exhibition is a popular disability simulation in Budapest, Hungary, that asks visitors to pretend to be blind in order to create empathy, promote social inclusion, and improve cultural understandings of disability. Advocacy organizations and the government under serve Hungary’s disabled population, and most Hungarians have never met a disabled person. Given the strong cultural role of simulations and their resurgence, it is necessary to revisit simulations as a site of collective performance. I draw on several theoretical fields, including disability studies, phenomenology, performativity, and ethnomethodology to analyze a simulation in Hungary. These intertwined and contradictory theories provide an entry to describing the tensions within the simulation. Each actor understands the simulation differently and holds conflicting assumptions about knowledge, identity, and embodiment. A theoretical network and a complex field site allow me to develop a more expansive and inclusive approach to research, and improve potential means of anthropological research into disability. I address the assumptions that each person brings to the simulation, the context and role of the simulation within Hungary, and the consequences of a reliance on simulations and the labor involved.

Rebecca Bone,

Tennessee State University
"Big Babies: An Exploration of Gestational Diabetes"
Many disease states are altered by the physiological processes related to pregnancy. Among these changes is the bodies' inability to counterpoise glucose utilization and insulin production, thus 9.2% of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). For most women, these altered processes return to normal following delivery. However, research indicates that 50% to 60% of women diagnosed with GDM are at greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in later life. In addition, researchers recognize a correlation between maternal GDM and offspring complications, with new prominence surrounding the development of schizophrenia.

Steve Brown,

Institute for Disability Culture
"Writing Ed: Continuing to Learn About Ed Roberts, Rolling Quads, and the Emergence of Disability Culture"
In 1995, Ed Roberts, a disability rights pioneer, died unexpectedly at the age of 59. A post-polio respirator-using quadriplegic since he was a teenager, Ed was a colleague and friend. After his passing, I received funding for one year to do research into Ed's life with the goal of writing a biography. After a year, unable to find more funding, I published an academic article about Ed and his mother Zona, as 20th century disability rights pioneers. Around 2006, I turned Ed's story into a short biography, published only on CD, targeted to middle schoolers. Ten years later, in 2015, the 20th anniversary of Ed's passing and the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act, I published a print book, "Ed Roberts: Wheelchair Genius" for Middle Grade students. In this process I've learned about Rolling Quads controversy, picture labeling and more, including new details of Ed's life and have added information not possible in earlier versions such as the fairly recent opening of the Ed Roberts Campus, a memorial to Ed and his work. This presentation will discuss some of the process and results of "Writing Ed."

Marlis Bruyere,

University of Phoenix
"Primary Care Offers Team-Based Care For Support Management of Chronic Disease"
The paper being presented will offer an understanding of the changing focus of healthcare from acute care settings to primary care settings in the support of chronic disease management. Traditionally, hospitals and doctor practices have been the focal point for acute care. In the early 1900s hospitals and doctor practices were built with acute care as the main focus of practice. With the aging baby boomers now entering the healthcare system with multiple chronic diseases and with the overall population experiencing chronic diseases at younger and younger ages, the shift in healthcare focus must be from acute care to chronic disease. Primary team-based healthcare offers the best setting for early detection, prevention strategies, and management of chronic diseases. Primary healthcare teams provide value for healthcare dollars because they offer a wide range of programs and services for healthy lifestyle promotion and for managing chronic diseases. It is a more cost effective provision of services than in hospital settings (AFHTO, 2015). Evidence indicates that a patient with multiple complexities can cost the province’s healthcare system an average of $30,000 per year but when aligned with a team-based primary care model that patient costs the system only $12,000 (AFHTO, 2015).

Pamela Conley,

Rochester Institute of Technology
"An Interdisciplinary Study of Literary Texts for Discovering (Un)Truths About Deaf People"
The world is a landscape of cultural diversity.  Texts, fiction and nonfiction, from scores of world societies are multifaceted descriptions provided by individuals from groups with collective experiences.  This interdisciplinary research examines how Deaf people are artistically depicted in literature, disclosing how authors and their contemporaries in particular cultures envision them.  Stories with Deaf characters around the world offer the reader an important collection of information, resources, and advice to better understand the specified society’s systematic complexity and connectedness with people who are Deaf.   These stories are profoundly rich in queried insights into the attitudes and treatments of Deaf people living under specific circumstances.  Authorial statements, observations of other characters, and quotes specific to Deaf characters deeply entrenched in geopolitical, historical, legal, and religious situations gleaned from literary texts produced across various time periods and locations afford the reader the opportunity to grasp critical clarity into the cultural representations of Deaf people from different societies.

Megan Conway,

University of Hawaii at Manoa
"Update on Disability Studies as a Tool for Change in Interdisciplinary Training"
This presentation is an update on a program of strategies to integrate disability studies into interdisciplinary training. The presentation described development of an online certificate program and an international journal at the University of Hawaii. Although Hawaii is geographically isolated from the continental U.S., we have successfully implemented the use of innovative online delivery strategies to develop and grow a well-respected Disability and Diversity Studies Certificate program and the Review of Disability Studies.

Carolyn Davis,

Walden University
Cynthia Jackson,

Meharry Medical College

"Stress and Help-Seeking Behaviors of College Students in Online Programs"
Significant changes have occurred in University settings over the last decade as it relates to University/college student’s stress, education, and the subsequent resources and services available to the University/college student population.  Also, with the increase of on-line education both through traditional programs and on-line Universities, many of the way resources and services have been provided to students has changed.  One of the primary resources available to students in traditional collegiate level learning experiences is the University/college Counseling Center.  Research suggests that college student’s mental illness represents a significant public health issue in the United States, as almost half experience a psychiatric disorder (Hayes, Youn, Castonguay, 2011).  Subjective impressions from University Counseling Center directors suggest that the severity of students’ problems seen in University/college counseling centers has increased dramatically (Gallagher, Bniner, & Lingenfelter, 1993) and according to Hunt and Eisenburg (2010), the number of college students with mental illness will continue to rise.

Carolyn Davis,

Walden University
"The Role of the Sports Psychologist in Sport Medicine: Collaboration of Medical and Physical Care"
The field of Psychology encompasses many subfields, unique practices, and areas of focus. Exercise and sport psychology is the scientific study of the psychological factors associated with participation and performance in sport, exercise, and physical activity. Although overlap exists, it is important to note that physicians “doing therapy” with a person who happens to be an athlete, is not considered to be sport psychology. Sport psychology is one such subfield, requiring the practicing professional to be appropriately educated, trained, and focused in this area of expertise. Within the last 15-20 years, the field of sport and performance psychology has skyrocketed in interest, research, and practice. This shift is largely due to the increase awareness of how both psychological and physiological factors interact to enhance performance, and how the balanced integration of both these facets can provide athletes and/or patients with strong sport and exercise backgrounds a winning edge. While performance enhancement practices have heightened the awareness of the role of sport psychologists, there is still much to be emphasized and considered that involves potential partnership with sports medicine focused physicians, and team physicians. Research has strongly shown that sports psychologist can potentially play an important collaborative role in improving self-care.

Pervell Dunbar,

Walden University
"Nursing Care of Terminal Patients in Intensive Care Units"
Although the goal of the ICU has always been to save lives, ICU now additionally provides end-of life (EOL) care. The objective of this project was to provide ICU nurses with a comprehensive awareness of physical, emotional, and spiritual EOL care issues of patients and their families in order to be better equipped to handle EOL care. The framework used was Jean Watson's Caring model (10 Caritas). A literature review revealed a poster previously used by a major health organization as a conversation starter to facilitate decision-making among ICU nurses, EOL patients, and their families related to EOL issues. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to introduce and implement an educational EOL tool that would engage patients and family members in meaningful and useful conversations with ICU nurses. Twenty-seven ICU nurses were selected by the unit’s director to attend a PowerPoint presentation on the use of the EOL educational poster.  Four ICU nurses were chosen by the director to be champions for this project. After the presentation, there was a period for questions and answers, and the ICU nurses were requested to give feedback on the presentation.

Maria Avalos Garcia,

University of Juarez and Mexican Institute of Social Security
Heberto Priego Alvarez,

University of Juarez and Mexican Institute of Social Security

Concepcion Lopez Ramon,

University of Juarez and Mexican Institute of Social Security

Rosa Sanchez Rodriquez,

University of Juarez and Mexican Institute of Social Security

Silvia Garrido Perez,

University of Juarez and Mexican Institute of Social Security

"Effectiveness of an Approach Model Focused on the Family in a Population of Chronically Ill Patients in Mexico"
Type 2 diabetes mellitus constitutes one of the major challenges for public health in the 21st century. There are 387 million people in the world suffering from it. It affects the quality of life if it is not under control properly. According to this, it is estimated that 46% of these people will develop different kinds of problems. In México, this disease is among the first causes of death, with 11 million people diagnosed; 80% of these people receive treatment and 75% are not under control. In this country, the diabetes is considered a social phenomenon that has not been addressed in the right form because of the predominance of health politics centered in the treatment of the illness. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an approach model focused on the family in a population of chronic patients of Mexico. Action research carried out on 10 patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 members of their family with the participation of a multidisciplinary health team under the leadership of the family doctor. We developed a theoretical model and completed a study on familiar functionality, resource classification and identification, lifestyles, risk factors and familiar functionality.

Ernest Goya,

Meharry Medical College
Cynthia Jackson,

Meharry Medical College

Naviar Barker,

Meharry Medical College

"Policy and Programs Affecting the Disability of Those With Chronic Mental Illness"
According to the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study of the early 1980s and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) of the early 1990s, about 20 percent of the U.S. population is affected by mental disorders during a given year. Annually 19 percent of the adult U.S. population has a mental disorder alone (in 1 year); 3 percent have both mental and addictive disorders; and 6 percent have addictive disorders alone. Consequently, about 28 to 30 percent of the population has either a mental or addictive disorder. Individuals with co-occurring disorders are more likely to experience a chronic course and to utilize services than are those with either type of disorder alone. Clinicians, program developers, and policy makers need to be aware of these high rates of comorbidity. The annual prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents is not as well documented as that for adults. About 20 percent of children are estimated to have mental disorders with at least mild functional impairment. While some disorders do continue into adulthood, a substantial fraction of children and adolescents recover or “grow out of” a disorder, whereas, a substantial fraction of adults develops mental disorders in adulthood.

Cynthia Jackson,

Meharry Medical College
"Residual Mental Health Symptoms of African American Female Sexual Abuse Survivors"
The purpose of this study is to further the research in the area of HIV risk factors among African American (AA) women, and to explore ways of navigating those risk factors. Most studies have sought to investigate predictors of HIV risk, and have used models of behavior that do not consider power in relationships between women and their male partners. Despite conceptual contributions, current theoretical models of behavior do not easily accommodate contextual personal and socio-cultural variables such as gender and racial/ethnic culture (Amaro & Rao, 2000). Atkinson, Morton, and Sue, (1989) suggests that counselors and psychologists should be exploring, the possibility that clients concerns and issues are not intrapsychic, yet more so related to their victimization by an oppressive society. In saying that, counselors might need to affect the clients’ environment in a way that helps the client persevere through whatever difficulty he or she is dealing with. Grills (2002) suggests that in order to embrace an African-centered approach to counseling AA’s, clinicians should be ready to shift from traditional approaches in which the predominant worldview present how human behavior is identified.

James Linn,

Optimal Solutions in Healthcare and International Development
Thabo Fako,

University of Botswana

Michele Rocha Kadri,

Fio Cruz Institute, Manaus, Brazil

"Global HIV/AIDS Update: Africa and Latin America--Differing Epidemics"
Despite recent advances in treatment and prevention programs for HIV/AIDs, there are currently an estimated 36 million infected individuals world-wide. Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS is influenced by the level of economic development and regional cultures. This presentation discusses two very different epidemics, the epidemic in Africa and that found in Latin America. The origin, development, and predicted future of these regional epidemics are analyzed with case examples from Botswana and Brazil.

Gail Myers,

University of Minnesota, Crookston
Chanel Myers,

University of North Dakota

"Strengths Created from the Chronic Illness Experience"
Research about chronic illness often focuses on the negative effects that come as a result, yet there are positive outcomes that are described by those who find strengths and benefits from the chronic illness experience. It is important to know what strengths result from chronic illness so that those talents can be leveraged to increase their success. Coping mechanisms developed may create the foundation for higher levels of functioning. The type of growth a person may experience as a result of a chronic illness may be different from growth that occurs in a healthy person. Pain and suffering may have their counterpoint in the chronically ill as we explore how the concept of increased ability can co-exist or be propelled by this disability. There may not be an opportunity for “bounce back” or remission with chronic illness, but there may be an opportunity to move ahead in ability, skill, and understanding. This roundtable will introduce appreciative inquiry into the chronic illness discussion supported by research and a paper in progress. Chronic illness may be a springboard to some elevated level of living, if we consider the growth, value and benefits from the journey.

Amy Oestreicher,

Independent Scholar
"Hope as Medicine, Resiliency as a Mindset, and Creativity as a Lifeline"
In a creative approach to physical health, the patient - who has little control over their clinical lives – can take an active part in shaping their identity, ultimately leading to improved mental, physical and emotional health. Through creativity, hands-on activities where the patient is in control, and lessons in positive thinking, the patient can play an empowered role in their own healthcare. Resiliency is connected to personal power. Through creativity, the patient is empowered to navigate their detours in life through turning obstacles into opportunities. The body and mind are intricately related, and in this alternative approach to health, the patient can access the body mind and spirit through creative practices in regimented routines, where hope and creativity are effective medicine. Amy emphasizes compassion and the balance of emotional well being with professional conduct. One way to do that may involve educating surgeons and physicians in positions of authority to accept that their power does not have to be exercised all the time, and that difficult situations and crises can often benefit from a cooperative rather than a dogmatic approach.

Maria Revell,

Tennessee State University
Janice Harris,

Tennessee State University

Pinkey Noble-Britain,

Tennessee State University

Debra Wilson,

Tennessee State University

"Issues in Women's Health: Research Updates on Cardiovascular Disease, Menopause, Domestic Violence, and Autoimmune Disease"
This Roundtable presented four relevant issues in women's health and discussed new findings, treatment, and outcomes. The areas covered included cardiovascular disease, domestic violence, autoimmune disease, and menopause. The information targeted a professional and academic audience.

William Richie,

Meharry Medical College
Cynthia Jackson,

Meharry Medical College

Rahn Bailey,

Wake Forrest University

"Mental Illness, Ethnicity, Criminal Behavior, Imprisonment, and Treatment"
This Roundtable presented several important themes related to the U.S. criminal justice system, mental illnesses, ethnicity, criminal behavior, imprisonment, and treatment. The discussion was based in theory, research, and clinical practice. Case examples were provided as evidence related to these themes.

Jean Rother,

Metropolitan State University of Denver
Mary Sawaya,

Metropolitan State University of Denver

"Alzheimer's Disease: Research Updates on Incidence, Prevalence, Treatment, Social, and Economic Impacts"
This Roundtable on Alzheimer's disease presented updates on the incidence, prevalence, treatments, social, and economic impacts of the illness.

Sara Schley,

National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Rochester Institute of Technology

Sue Foster,

National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Rochester Institute of Technology
"Networking and Career Satisfaction of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Female and Male Faculty"
AdvanceRIT (AdvanceRIT, NSF 1209115) has supported research at NTID to document the career development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) women faculty with the goal of improving opportunities for advancement. The results of focus groups with DHH women faculty were presented last year at WSSA. This year we focused on the experiences of all NTID faculty (men and women; deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing), and examine similarities and differences based on gender and hearing status. We designed an inclusive survey with five sections: demographics, career pathways, mentorship, experiences with networking, and perspectives on career "success" with both quantitative and qualitative items. This paper presents initial results on the survey conducted late in the spring of 2015. With 57 respondents (58% were deaf and hard of hearing faculty; 58% were women), we look faculty rank and distinctive career points (early, mid, late), and focus primarily on experiences with networking in their careers, and on perspectives on career satisfaction. While both DHH and hearing faculty members are generally satisfied with their career, they define satisfaction with career trajectory differently. And despite institutional efforts to bolster degree attainment and rank of DHH faculty, differences persist in advancement to higher faculty ranks.

Nicole Thede,

Arapahoe Community College
"Evaluation of Clinical Indicators Utilized During Telephone Triage of Children With Head Injury"
In 2011, the Qualtiy Improvement Committee of the Pediatric Call Center at Children's Hospital Colorado conducted an outcome review on head injury calls with a disposition of Emergency Room Now as it related to the clinical indicator Dangerous Mechanism of Injury Caused by High Speed, Great Height or Severe Blows from Hard Objects.  Of the 42 calls reviewed there were normal neurological exams in 18 (43%) children with prompt discharge from the emergency room. Extended observation varying in duration was provided to 12 (28%) children and 1 (2%) child required imaging studies. The remaining 11 (26%) children did not arrive to the recommended emergency room, with the assumption of parental non-compliance.  Based on this outcome review, Dr. Barton Schmitt, Medical Director of the Pediatric Call Center at Children’s Hospital Colorado, modified the Head Injury Guideline. The original clinical indicator, was divided into three separate clinical indicators to ensure safe patient care and appropriate disposition, while minimizing over-referrals to the emergency room.  The purpose of the project conducted in 2015 was to determine if the new clinical indicators ensured safe patient care and appropriate dispositions. Furthermore, community health benefits and potential consequences of telephone triage were considered.

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