African and african american studies

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Chelsea Schelly,

Michigan Technological University
Roy Allen,

Saint Mary's College of California

Asbjorn Moseidjord,

Saint Mary's College of California

“Save One and We’ll Give You Two: Impacts of Generous CO2 Credits Granted by the EPA to Sellers of Electric Vehicles in California”
The proposed paper focuses on the intermingling of regulatory systems at two levels: California’s set of policies to reduce CO2 emissions in general and the federal government’s (i.e., the EPA’s) program to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars. The model to be presented estimates the joint CO2 impacts of these programs on fully electric vehicles sold in California over the period 2015 – 2025. Given the typical lifetime of a vehicle, the impact on emissions from the automotive fleet will be felt through about the year 2040. The model accounts for technical as well as policy parameters expected for the next decade and that influence emissions, including the CO2 content of gasoline and electricity sources. The main findings are those predicted by the literature on environmental federalism: that the federal regulation dominates the state regulation. In this case, the EPA program provides CO2 credits to the seller of electric vehicles far beyond what the vehicles actually save. Combined with California’s aggressive Zero Emission Vehicle Program, the effect is a substantial, policy induced increase in CO2 emissions triggered by selling electric vehicles – as compared to typical gasoline vehicles – in California, but mostly emitted in other states.

Aparajita Banerjee,

Michigan Technological University
“Environmental and Natural Resource Management as Corporate Social Responsibility: An Analysis of Recent Trends of Major Indian Private Companies”
Increasingly private firms worldwide are investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR) causes. Some scholars suggest that in today’s globalized world, businesses faces new challenges to promote social and environmental sustainability along with maintaining economic profits (Fet 2006). CSR activities can have different foci like health, safety, education, and employment to name a few. Managerial decisions that impact an institution’s values, norms, rules and practices are influenced by coercive, mimetic or normative isomorphism (DiMaggio and Powell 1983). In this paper, CSR causes of top 100 Indian companies based on market capitalization is analyzed to understand the trends of CSR initiatives related to environmental and natural resource management. Results are based on the CSR plans published on company websites. Identifying present trends will help in exploring what factors have resulted in the current conditions and what can be done to enable inclusion of environmental and natural resource management projects in future CSR initiatives of Indian private sector companies.

Phil Brick,

Whitman College
“Rhetoric on The Sage Grouse Decision”
I will discuss the rhetoric coming out of the Sage Grouse decision that supposedly points to a "new era" and new structures for protecting endangered species. This intersects with my interest in collaboratives and my growing concern that they are foreclosing a proper political framing and context; namely, that they seem to match theoretical concerns about the post-political.

Ziya Cologlu,

University of Texas at Dallas
“Price Dynamics in Asian and European LNG Markets”
This paper investigates the structure of pricing mechanism in LNG (liquefied natural gas) markets both in the high and low oil price environments. Despite numerous reports and articles explain LNG industry, only a few academic papers focus on the dynamics behind the price mechanism. Given the fact that the long term contracts come along with take-or-pay obligation, an interesting question is why contract prices remain higher than spot prices for long periods of time. We describe these transactions in LNG markets from the perspective of Williamson’s (1985) asset specificity theory and analyze the dynamics behind contract and spot prices in European and Asian markets. We conduct Granger Causality Test and apply Error Correction Model to evaluate the short- and long-term relationships between spot and contract prices in LNG markets. The test results indicate that while the spot and contract prices do not Granger cause each other in Europe, contract prices do Granger cause spot prices, and oil prices Granger cause both spot and contract prices in Asia. Error Correction mechanism that is constructed with the inclusion of all related determinants also draw interesting conclusions about the impacts of short and long run causality particularly in European markets.

Michael S. Cook,

Northern Arizona University 
“The Political Economy of Mountaintop Removal Mining: Reproducing Big Coal's Hegemony in Southern West Virginia”
Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a method of coal extraction practiced largely in southern West Virginia, whereby the ridges of mountains are blasted away to expose, for full extraction, the seams of coal located beneath. Despite the devastation wrought by the coal industry’s MTR mines, which is not without considerable empirical support, the specter of doubt persists; many West Virginians still find themselves questioning the legitimacy of the health and environmental concerns of anti-MTR activists. Although mining industry employment and coal production have indeed declined, and environmental degradation abounds, Big Coal has continually—and, by many accounts, successfully—argued that it is integral to the economic wellbeing of the state. Mountaintop removal mining, in particular, is still an important method of coal extraction, even though its consequences are well documented. The primary purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to articulate the content of Big Coal’s hegemony in West Virginia, and 2) to consider the contemporary ways in which Big Coal reinforces its dominance. 

John Freemuth,

Boise State University
“Current Issues in Public Land Management”
The round table gathers a number of researchers and practitioners – and those who regularly are active on both ends – to discuss these issues. The aim is to locate where research on – and the actual governance of the commons in – the American West stand, and where they may (and should) be going in the future, thereby also addressing the role of science in political processes. I will discuss current issues and events in public lands management; this will include reform, the politicization of science, and collaboration and sage grouse.

Mayra O. Sanchez Gonzalez,

Michigan Technological University
“Ecotourism and Women Empowerment: A Case Study in Quintana Roo, Mexico”
Ecotourism emerged in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s as a response to negative environmental and social impacts of the mass tourism industry. Since then it has grown rapidly. Generally NGOs, academia, and some international organizations promote ecotourism broadly and globally as a path for sustainable development because it should be a real tool for poverty alleviation; it should bring real economic, social and ecological benefits, and promote real participation and empowerment. Specifically the UNWTO and some researchers believe that ecotourism could be a tool to promote women’s empowerment. However, only a small body of research has begun to document the impacts of ecotourism on women’s empowerment. Results of these studies suggest that ecotourism might provide economic opportunities, but might not contribute to political, social, or psychological empowerment or ecotourism sometimes empowers people that already have power. Therefore, ecotourism might not promote empowerment and gender equity; instead, it might disempower women and strengthen social and gender disparities. This research will investigate how ecotourism impacts women’s empowerment in a popular tourism destination- Quintana Roo, Mexico.

Eric Herzik,

University of Nevada, Reno
“Public Lands and the Sage Grouse”
This talk focuses on public lands, the sage grouse issue and local and state politics in Nevada. It is part of a round table that seeks to explore recent and past trends in the politics of public lands in the American West in relation to environmental conflicts and governance. Issues addressed include endangered species (such as the recent “sage grouse” issue), business interests (as of the mining and ranching industries), energy (oil and gas as well as renewable energy development) and local and state politics.

Giancarlo Panagia,

Westminster College
“Taking a Hard Look at Land Swaps Maps: Using a Doctrine to Challenge Federal Land Agencies”
An established trend, embedded into the BLM’s and USFS’ policies is to transfer federal lands notwithstanding flawed appraisals or interpretations of public interest. The consequence of this ill-fated trend is the loss of economic value to national coffers. This paper suggests the use of the Hard Look Doctrine to challenge Federal land agencies practices that lead to loss value for the federal government. According to this Doctrine, substantive review ensures that the findings of fact upon which the agency has predicated its action have support in the rulemaking record. The agency must show that the course it chose was reasonable in light of the relevant policies, alternatives, and facts. The way to fix an agency that is captured by the interests it seeks to regulate is to force the agency to actually consider the public interest when making a decision. Thus, the federal judiciary should exercise strict judicial scrutiny so as to protect public fundamental interests from agency abuse.

Steven Parker,

University of Nevada – Las Vegas
“Creating the National Park System: The Men and the Politics”
With 2016 being the 100th anniversary of the creation of the NPS,  the proposed talk will focus on its birthing.  If accepted, it will be a discussion of the work of benevolent, civic-minded and generous men from five generation ago.  As such it will look at who these individuals were; how and why they evolved the idea of what they initially called a bureau of national parks and how they finally “pulled it off.”   With UC Berkeley alums at the helm, they crafted what film maker Ken Burns called “America’s Best Idea.”  I’ll walk the panel’s audience through the evolution of the idea, considering the challenges and victories as well as the problems and set-backs. It’s a fascinating case study of fascinating men; the humanistic values that drove them; and the political process through which they steered this legacy for all Americans, and indeed for all the world... the National Park System.

Julia Puaschunder,

The New School Department of Economics
“Ethical Decision Making under Social Uncertainty: An Introduction to Ueberethicality”
Decision making research has been revolutionized by prospect theory. In laboratory experiments, prospect theory captures human to code outcome perspectives as gains or losses relative to an individual reference point, by which decisions are anchored. Prospect theory’s core finding that monetary losses loom larger than gains has been generalized in many domains; yet not been tested for social status changes. Social status striving has been subject to social sciences’ research for a long time but until today we have no clear picture of how social status prospects relative to an individual reference point may influence our decision making and action. Understanding human cognition in the light of social status perspectives, however, could allow turning social status experiences into ethicality nudges. Building on prospect theory, two field observations of environmentally conscientious recycling behavior and sustainable energy consumption tested if social status losses are more likely to be answered with ethicality than social status gains. Social status losses are found as significant drivers of socially-responsible environmental conscientiousness.

Beatriz Adriana Venegas Sahagun,

Centre for Research and Advanced Studies in Social Anthropology CIESAS

“Municipal Solid Waste Governance: A Theoretical and Methodological Approach”

In this paper, a theoretical and methodological approach is presented to analyze the governance of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the Mexican context. To do this research I start of with the next assumption: The complex process of power struggle between the economic and politic elites (municipal officials, union leaders and employers) manipulate at their will the management of MSW, and they only seek their profit, because there’s a relation between the greater increase in MSW and monetary profit. One of the ways in which we can observe this domain, is examining the little or no allowance in the participation of the population in solid waste management. These elites do not consider the environmental aspect as relevant in the various forms of governance. These forms cannot achieve adequate sustainable development (understood as the environmental, social and economic balance); and these forms ignore the impact on the environment and the health of the population, which is generated by the increase of MSW, also they do not give importance to educational campaigns to lower them. This study will identify the relationships between the various bodies and actors, and thus develop an interpretation based on the theory of polycentric governance process.

Chelsea Schelly,

Michigan Technological University
“Pursuing Sustainable Consumption through Diverse Alternative Economies: A Comparative Examination of Two US Intentional Communities”
When thinking about how to pursue sustainable consumption, many scholars explicitly recognize the need to change economic organization and activity. Whether through de-scaling, steady state, or plentitude economics, various bodies of work offer useful perspectives on the relationship between economics and sustainable consumption. This paper works from the ground up, looking at two successful intentional communities in the United States. While both demonstrate potential futures for more sustainable models of consumption, these communities are organized based on radically different economic models. Twin Oaks is a labor and income sharing community, while Dancing Rabbit Eco-village requires individual households to meet their own subsistence needs through economic activity. Based on ethnographic research, interviews, and participant observation, this paper offers two reflections. First, the economic organization in each community seems to shape – although, importantly, not determinately – other institutional and cultural arrangements, from housing arrangements to social norms. Second, both communities are arguably successful and thriving, demonstrating the potential to pursue more sustainable consumption patterns through diverse forms of economic organization. This suggests, as these communities themselves acknowledge, that perhaps the most valuable tool for pursuing sustainable consumption is to allow for flexible experimentation in alternative forms of organizing residential life.

Zachary Smith,

Northern Arizona University
“Environmental Challenges Facing the Great Basin”
This talk focuses on the environmental challenges facing the great basic. The aim is to locate where research on – and the actual governance of the commons in – the American West stand, and where they may (and should) be going in the future, thereby also addressing the role of science in political processes.

Jared L. Talley,

Boise State University
“Look What the Cat Dragged In: Social Construction, Cats, and the Environment”
It is no stretch to say that humans have a special connection with their domesticated animals, most specifically their dogs and cats. Whereas domestic dogs are considerably dependent on their human companions for survival and reproductive health, domestic cats are not. The independent nature of cats has serious ramifications to those environments they thrive in. Recent research suggest that free-roaming cats have supplanted habitat loss and man-made structure collisions as the leading source of anthropogenic mortality for land-bird and mammal deaths. This impact of cats on their local ecosystems is causing concern among natural scientists and conservationists whom are increasingly demanding policy action. The Hawaiian Islands have launched policy initiatives to reduce the impact of domestic cats, providing a clear platform to evaluate the nascent policy process. Although the evidence of the domestic cat’s impact on the environment seems inarguable, there are considerable obstacles to the policy process that can be attributed to the way in which the various actors are socially constructed. This paper reviews the current state of the domestic cat’s impact on the environment, the policy process being undertaken in Hawaii, and how the social construction of the actors involved impacts the policy process.

Christian R. Thauer,

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
“Of Grouse and Men. The Sage Grouse Issue - A Public Policy-Perspective”
The paper analyzes environmental politics and governance in relation to public lands in the American West. More specifically, it looks at the so-called “sage grouse issue”, which has recently caused some havoc in particular in the inter-mountain states’ rural areas, culminating with rancher Clive Bundy and his militia confronting personnel of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at gunpoint in Southern Nevada. The paper’s argument is that these institutions encouraged the descendants of the first settlers to make similar existential, irreversible and life-changing investments in the family ranch. In this context, the “rugged individualism” they display is for these later generations no longer in the first place a motivation for being a family rancher. Rather, it is the ideological justification within which they can make sense of their decision to dedicate their lives to the family ranch. Therefore, “rugged individualism” prevails as an ideology – and prevents family ranchers from engaging politically in a way that would guarantee their survival in light of the “sage grouse issue.”

Christian R. Thauer,

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
“The Politics of Public Lands: Trends and Developments in the Governance of the Commons in the American West”
This talk will kick off a moderated round table exploring recent and past trends in the politics of public lands in the American West in relation to environmental conflicts and governance. Issues addressed include endangered species (such as the recent “sage grouse” issue), business interests (as of the mining and ranching industries), energy (oil and gas as well as renewable energy development) and local and state politics. I will discuss private interests and their strategies in relation to the recent sage grouse issue. More specifically, I will analyze the reaction of the mining and ranching industries to the regulatory threat the sage grouse posed for them for quite some time - though the bird was in the end not "listed". While the mining industry reacted by playing the "regulatory game" and got deeply involved in sage grouse conservation, thereby heavily influencing public lands governance, the ranching industry remained largely inactive on the issue. What explains behaviors in both industries?


Pete Martini,

Heidelberg University
Joanne Benham Rennick,

Wilfrid Laurier University

“From Fragility to Resilience: Social Enterprise at the Nexus of Conflict and Development in Africa”
Global social enterprise networks create opportunities to bypass the dysfunctional or nonexistent infrastructure of fragile states to educate, empower, and fund initiatives capable of driving positive systemic change and sustaining peace. An interdisciplinary approach is used to build the case that challenges within a given social context might best be overcome from the ground up by developing social enterprises. This chapter employs a literature review to examine the linkages between social enterprise and peacebuilding in fragile states, and offers a mini-case study of several distinct social enterprises operating in African countries. Our analysis offers insights for understanding how change happens over time, and where social entrepreneurs can make a difference. We anticipate this work will be useful for donors/interveners aiming to support social entrepreneurs in fragile African states and gaining understanding of the limits and possibilities of SE in fragile and conflict-affected states.

Berch Berberaglu,

University of Nevada, Reno
“Globalization and China”
This paper examines the impact of globalization on China over the past several decades. Unlike many other peripheral countries that have been subservient to global powers that have had adverse effects on their economy and society, China has emerged as an economic power house over the past several decades. The critical factor that has differentiated China from its Latin American counterparts is the role of the state under the rule of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Although China has fully participated in the global economy through trade, investments, and a variety of economic activities, and this has prompted some to claim that the country is moving in a capitalist direction, the political discussion on the nature of the Chinese state remains contentious. Whether China ultimately becomes a capitalist state or continues to grow and prosper, as a socialist state only time will tell. The question will ultimately be answered by an analysis of the class nature of the Chinese state.

Brian Chi-ang Lin,

National Chengchi University
“From Divergence to Convergence: China’s Institutional Change versus Britain’s Industrial Revolution”
China’s economic boom beginning in the early 1980s poses a profound challenge to institutional economists. According to a recent report by Standard Chartered Bank forecasting the world economic outlook in 2030, China’s GDP is expected to exceed that of the US in 2022. As a matter of fact, China was the largest national economy in the world during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. After the Industrial Revolution took place in Britain in the late eighteenth century, many countries successfully followed Britain’s lead and experienced economic prosperity. China, on the other hand, has long become an economic laggard. According to the late Joseph Needham, China was the global leader in many fields of scientific and innovative breakthroughs during the Tang and Song dynasties. Why this technological advantage did not lead to a Chinese industrial revolution has been referred to as the ‘Needham puzzle’. Although the Needham puzzle remains to be solved, China’s economic performance since the early 1980s has triggered another thought-provoking question. That is, China’s enormous economic growth over the past three decades has clearly shown the significance of institutional reforms. If China keeps growing (even at a slower rate), she will eventually regain the global economic power she once had in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This restoration of economic power weighs against a view that links economic development to technological factors. This paper argues that the recovery of China’s economic power rests upon a series of successful reforms in the Chinese economic, legal, political, and social institutions. If ever fully realized, this might be termed an Institutional Revolution in history, a rivaling counterpart to Britain’s Industrial Revolution.

Joe Cudjoe,

Florida Gulf Coast University
“Bridging the Digital Divide:  Latent Implications for Developing Countries and Global Security”
The transforming influence of technology across the globe cannot be overstated.  It has led to global interconnections, democratizing innovation, providing better service delivery, and countless opportunities.  It has been described as the most crucial driving force for globalization and economic growth, particularly, in the last few decades. According to a number of studies (Andres et. al 2010; Amiri and Reif  2013, World Bank, various years), there is a high positive correlation between a country’s internet penetration and economic growth, with the correlation being higher in emerging economies.  Unfortunately, the benefits of technology are not equally shared within and across countries.  The digital divide between the more developed world and the less developed world remains considerable. This, in part, may explain the unbridled drive toward providing less developed counties with computers and other electronic gadgets, even if the electronic gadgets are functionally obsolete.  The proliferation of technological devices, and the speed with which electronic products become functionally obsolescent, raise questions about the condition of electronic products that are shipped to the developing world.  According to the UNEP, global e-waste generation is growing by about 40 million tons per year. The unsustainable e-waste dumping, particularly from the developed world to the developing world, not only poses health concerns, but also has global security implications.  Unfortunately, these latent implications are poorly understood and recognized. This study thus attempts to fill this void. It is a two-year study of a major e-waste dumping site in Accra, Ghana.  Popularly referred to by the locals, as “Sodom and Gomorrah, it is hard to imagine that this was once a functioning wetland. Using a mixed method approach, the study, presents a baseline assessment of the nature and extent of the problem of e-waste dumping in Ghana. This includes finding out the major sources of e-waste in Ghana, the socio-economic background of children and adults involved in scrapping copper and other metals from computers, and the general threats to global security that the e-waste sites pose.  The overarching objective of the study is to put a human face on the e-waste problem, by hearing and telling the story of the children and people at the dumping sites.  A major question that the study seeks to address is whether, in addition to possible health problems and other socio-economic problems at e-waste sites, these sites pose threats to global security, and how these threats are engendered.   The findings suggest that, while it is important to bridge the global digital divide, it is equally imperative to find more sustainable global measures for e-waste disposal.  E-waste dumping from the developed world to the developing world, not only poses health and other concerns in the developing countries but has latent implications for global security as well.

Cecilia Gowdy-Wygant,

Front Range Community College
“Long Liev Life: The Stockholm Conference and Global Environmental Consciousness”
The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1972, was a watershed for the environmental movement and future environmental organization for the next forty years.  Population, pollution, and development took center stage as issues the world could no longer ignore.  The political and social tensions of the decades leading up to the Stockholm conference showed an increased globalization of political activism and these tensions shaped the attitudes of those who attended or opposed the conference.  Closer analysis reveals that conference tensions derived from policies associated with the Cold War and colonialism, as well as counter-culture attitudes of the early 1970s that gave rise to modern environmental activism.  Through the significant yet often difficult negotiations of world leaders, both governmental and non-governmental, significant policy changes occurred which shaped the future of global environmental monitoring and gave birth to a global environmental consciousness.   

Beatriz Hernández Martínez,

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco (UAM-A) México
Jazmín Anaid Flores-Zúñiga,

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco (UAM-A) México

Rosa González Torres,

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco (UAM-A) México

“Los desafíos regulatorios en México para la disminución de incertidumbres en el manejo de desarrollos científicos y tecnológicos: Ingeniería genética y Fracturación hidráulica horizontal”
En los análisis de los estudios Sociales de la Ciencia, Tecnología, Sociedad e Innovación se tiene como premisa que no existe tecnología neutra, se analiza a la investigación científica y tecnológica desde los agentes relevantes con sus diversos intereses; políticos, ideológicos y económicos. Al ser el objeto de estudio tan complejo se recurre a distintos dominios para generar explicaciones más precisas y no reduccionistas. Este enfoque nos revela la necesidad y la importancia de estudiar a los procesos tecnológicos, sus beneficios y sus implementaciones para que no se generen consecuencias catastróficas, riesgos e incertidumbres sociales. Podemos hablar de una sociedad contemporánea con elementos multidimensionales y estrechamente relacionados con el progreso de la ciencia y la tecnología. Algunos sociólogos importantes hablan de la “sociedad del riesgo” y de las “incertidumbres”, sin embargo, en México observamos que los conceptos mencionados no logran explicar la compleja realidad aunados a los graves problemas regulatorios para manejar los avances tecnológicos. Sin una adecuada supervisión social ética y jurídica, los procesos tecnológicos llevarán al deterioro del ser humano, de su dignidad y de su entorno. En esta propuesta se retoman dos desarrollos científico-tecnológicos; la fracturación hidráulica horizontal y la ingeniería genética para dar respuesta a los siguientes cuestionamientos, retomando los beneficios que presentan las nuevas tecnologías son revisados bajo la regulación vigente, sin embargo, ¿qué sucede cuando el avance tecnológico ha rebasado los marcos regulatorios internacionales y nacionales?. El llamado a los sistemas expertos a una auto-regulación parece ser un punto crucial, pero ¿cómo está estimulado el fortalecimiento de la auto-regulación?. Esta propuesta se está desarrollando desde el enfoque de los estudios sociales de la ciencia y la tecnología con énfasis en la normatividad y análisis de las leyes que enmarcan a México

Michael Prather,

University of California, Riverside
“The Emergence of Humanitarian Contractors”
Nongovernmental humanitarian organizations have historically maintained an uneasy relationship with states during conflicts. Organizations offering humanitarian assistance seek to separate themselves from states through expressing dedication to principles of independence, neutrality and impartiality. It is through these principles that humanitarian organizations create a humanitarian space to provide assistance. Many humanitarian organizations, however, are dependent on the financial support of states. Conflicts associated with the American led war against terrorism featured insecure environments for humanitarians, extensive needs among civilian populations, and opportunities for humanitarian providers to receive contracts and grants from the American government. This research analyzes the new humanitarian assistance providers that emerged from this environment and what their emergence says about the meaning of humanitarianism. This project utilizes interviews with USAID officials, U.S. State Department officials, humanitarian personnel, and members of the U.S military to examine humanitarian practices that have emerged in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001. It identifies humanitarian contractors as a new type of humanitarian organization focused on aiding states and military forces in efforts to bring about stability and development. As these organizations seek to aid in stabilizing communities they alter the meaning of humanitarian assistance in conflict settings.

Julia Puaschunder,

The New School
“Putty capital's shadow of the invisible hand on clay labor: On the emergent risk of differing speeds of European Union capital and labor freedom in times of European migration”
Globalization has led to unprecedented risks stemming from global interconnectedness.  Economic trade may distribute benefits of international exchange unevenly due to fundamental barriers of distance, national borders and implicit market segmentation. In order to equalize more equitable trade prosperity, the European Union (EU) 4 freedoms of goods, services, capital and labor were established by a neoliberal policy framework and the Eurozone featuring a common currency.  While there is a vital central monetary union and since the 2008/09 World Financial Crisis a common European fiscal pact, EU free movement is limited regarding labor mobility.  In the light of the current European migration, the following paper offers a forward-thinking perspective on potential emergent risks arising within the European Union due to an asymmetry between the mobility of labor on the one hand and capital and goods on the other in times of mass migration.  This paper is based on the idea that the asymmetry of the mobility of labor and capital leads to the risk of an uneven distribution of gains within the European Union towards some core states against the periphery.  The reasons for this asymmetry of the mobility of labor and capital are found in explicit labor mobility constraints that comprise of work permission requirements and sector specific restrictions while implicit drawbacks arise due to specific language, cultural and skill requirements.  Within the EU full capital flows and export opportunities may gravitate trade benefits towards original EU core countries, while periphery countries that became later part of the EU are shunned from full employment productivity.  A less mobile workforce in the EU periphery is described as a reserve army of labor with social problems invisible to the core union as for remaining out of focus due to national borders and geographic distance.  Trade and labor movements within the EU are analyzed with attention to export, unemployment as well as migration patterns in order to advocate for attention to labor freedom within the EU following the greater goal of Ricardian mutually-beneficial free trade in combination with societal stability in times of mass immigration enabled through a harmonious interplay of national government and European governance polity.

Eberein Temitope,

Universityn of Kwazulu-Natal,South Africa
Ige Oluwafemi,

Osun State College of Technology

“Migrant Women, Gender and Education ; Postgraduate Women in Durban University of Technology, South Africa”
The number of female immigrants from West Africa studying in South Africa’s Higher Institutions have been on the increase due to globalization and favorable migratory policies.  Studies have shown that pursuing an education is a critical `pull’ factor in student mobility across industrialized countries in Europe and cross-border migration in Africa. The education of women is crucial in empowerment and closing gender inequality. The dismal state of education in Nigeria, is one of the `push’ factors influencing migrant Nigerian women’s decision to migrate based on neglect of Nigeria’s educational sector. The aim of the paper is to discuss ‘push and pull’ factors that motivated female immigrants to study in South Africa’s Higher Institutions. Are women who migrate empowered? How can we measure or quantify such empowerment on their gender?  Do Gender and nationality affects their identity in host country. The study adopted mixed method research approach that involved focus group, qualitative and quantitative method. Data was gathered through interviews and questionnaires from ten female postgraduate immigrants from Ghana and Nigeria studying at Durban University of Technology, South Africa. Analyzing Gender across Transnational Spaces served as the theoretical framework for the study. The results of the study found out that xenophobic attitude, accommodation, language and cultural barrier are some of the challenges students female immigrants encounter. The paper concluded that Higher Institutions should put in place mechanism that supports female student migrants.
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