Direct and indirect objects



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DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS (Direct = pg. 360, Indirect = pg 410 – Span 1 book).
In English, when we talk about stuff, we don’t always say, “Please give that pen to me,” “Kick the ball to your brother,” or “Put your homework in the box for your teacher.” Often, we say things like, “Give me it!”, “Kick it to him!” “Put it in the box for her”. The way we make it shorter is by using DIRECT object pronouns, and INDIRECT object pronouns.

In Spanish, we have the same short cuts. After we say what we’re talking about initially, we can use these object pronouns to REPLACE what we were talking about. The DIRECT OBJECTS are the ones that we give/put/kick/place, etc., and the INDIRECT OBJECTS are the people or things we do stuff for/to.



An easy way to remember this is:

Direct Object = Who? What?  Who or what is the action affecting DIRECTLY?

Indirect Object = To who/what? For who/what?  Who or what is this action FOR, or who are we giving stuff TO?
Direct Objects:

Examples:

¿Dónde compraste tus arétes?  Where’d you buy your earrings?

Los compré en la joyería.  I bought them in the jewelry store.

MAKE SURE that you choose DIRECT OBJECTS so they AGREE with if it’s one thing or two things, a boy thing or a girl thing:

¿Tienes mi lápiz?  EL Lápiz is a boy thing, so you say back: No, no lo tengo.

¿Tienes mi bolsa?  LA bolsa is a girl thing, so you say back, No, no la tengo.

¿Tienes mis libros?  LOS libros are boy things, so you say back, No, no los tengo.

**NOTE: While “Lo” and “La’ technically mean “it”, that’s like, “GIVE IT TO ME!”, not IT’s sunny. The “lo” and “la” aren’t strong enough to be the subject of a sentence (the thing that DOES stuff.)

MOST DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS:



Singular

Singular

Plural

Plural

Lo

It (masculine)

Los

Them (masculine)

La

It (feminine)

Las

Them (feminine)

ALL THE DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS:



Singular

Singular

Plural

Plural

Me

Me

Nos

Us

Te

You

Os

Y’all

Lo/La

It (or him/her)

Los/Las

Them


Indirect objects:

Examples:

Les doy dinero  I give money to them.

Te llevo el vidrio y las latas.  I bring (to) you the glass and the cans.

¿Nos reciclas estas botellas, por favor? Will you please recycle these bottles for us?


**NOTE: You could also say, “Lo les doy I give it to them, using a D.O. AND an I.O.!
MAKE SURE that you choose INDIRECT OBJECTS so they AGREE with the person/thing it’s for/to!:

INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS:



Singular

Singular

Plural

Plural

Me

To me

Nos

To us

Te

To you

Os

To y’all

Le

To him/her/usted

Les

To them/you all

EXTRA RULES:






  • You can’t “le lo” in Spanish  if you’re saying “le” or “les”, + a DIRECT OBJECT, the “le” or “les” changes to “se”.

    • Yo doy las botellas a él.  Yo las doy a él.  Yo le las doy.  Yo se las doy.

    • Tú traes el vidrio para ellos.  Tú lo traes para ellos.  Tú les lo traes.  Tú se lo traes.




  • If you use “le” or “les” as an INDRECT object in Spanish, we might not know who you’re talking about, so you can add “a _whoever it is_” at the end.

    • Les damos los regalos a Miguel y a Felipe.

    • Les damos los regalos a los niños.

    • Les damos los regalos a ellos.


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