English connectors (Bachillerato)



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ENGLISH CONNECTORS (Bachillerato)


Los conectores (connectors) son aquellos términos que usamos para señalar las relaciones entre ideas. Así pues, los conectores, también llamados en Inglés linking words (nexos), pueden expresar contraste u oposición de ideas, razón, causa y finalidad. Asimismo, se usan para introducir ejemplos y añadir información adicional, o también para mostrar una sucesión de hechos y las consecuencias de los mismos.

1. EXPRESIÓN DE LA RAZÓN Y LA CAUSA.-


Estos conectores indican la razón o la causa de algo.

because (porque)

as (puesto que) + oración con verbo en formal personal

since (ya que)

Ex: Because/ As/ Since it’s late, we should all go home.



NOTA: Si la oración subordinada va al principio, debe ir separada por coma de la oración principal.

Because of (a causa de)

Owing to (debido a) + sustantivo o pronombre

Due to (debido a)

Ex: Because of / Owing to / Due to the weather, we stayed at home.
2. EXPRESIÓN DE LA FINALIDAD.-

Expresan el propósito o la finalidad de algo.



2.1. Oración principal y subordinada con el MISMO sujeto:

To (“para” +infinitivo)

In order to (“para” + infinitivo) + verbo en infinitivo

So as to (“para” + infinitivo)

Ex: She uses her video to / in order to / so as to record her favourite shows.

NOTA: Para negar la oración final, basta con añadir “not” delante de to:

Ex: She took her raincoat not to / in order not to / so as not to get wet.



2.2. Oración principal y subordinada con DISTINTO sujeto:

In order that (para que. . . )

+ oración con verbo modal (can, could, may, might)



So as to (para que. . . )

Ex: I went to Mike´s house in order that / so that he could help me to do my homework.


3. INTRODUCCIÓN DE EJEMPLOS.-

Para ejemplificar y aclarar lo que estamos explicando.



; for example, (por ejemplo)

; for instance, (por ejemplo)

Ex: Vegetables are a good sorce of vitamins; for example / for instance, pepper has vitamin C.


Such as (como)

Ex: Singers such as Michael Jackson and Madonna are popular all over the world.


4. INTRODUCCIÓN DE INFORMACIÓN ADICIONAL.-

Sirven para añadir algo ADEMÁS de lo que estamos diciendo.

Moreover, (además)

Furthermore, (además)

Besides, (además)

Ex: I’m too busy to take a holiday. Moreover / Furthermore / Besides, I don’t have the money.



In addition to. . . , ( además de )

+ sustantivo o pronombre

. . . as well as. . . ( además de )

Ex: In addition to classical music, she likes jazz.

She likes jazz as well as classical music.

Apart from. . . , (excepto, exceptuando)

+ sustantivo

Except (for) (excepto, exceptuando)

Ex: Apart from English, she speaks three other languages.

He eats nothing except (for) bread and fish.
5. EXPRESIÓN DEL RESULTADO Y LA CONSECUENCIA.-

Expresan el resultado o la consecuencia de una acción o idea anterior.



Therefore, (por ello)

Consequently, (en consecuencia)

For this reason, (por esta razón)

Thus, (así pues)

Ex: Tina gets her car in good condition. Therefore / Consequently / For this reason / Thus, it always passes its annual road test.

As a result of + sustantivo o pronombre

Ex: As a result of his brave action, he was given a military medal.


6. EXPRESIÓN DEL CONTRASTE Y LA OPOSICIÓN DE IDEAS.-

but (pero, sino) + sustantivo o adjetivo

Ex: The book is short but interesting.

She didn’t buy a house but a flat.

, but (pero) + oración con verbo en forma personal

Ex: She loves English, but she hates Maths.

However, (sin embargo)

Nevertheless, (sin embargo)

On the contrary, (por el contrario)

Ex: She was quite ill. However / Nevertheless, she went to school.

She was ill, but she didn’t go to the doctor. On the contrary, she went to work.

, while (mientras que)

+ oración con verbo en forma personal

, whereas (mientras que)

Ex: Last night’s film was very interesting, while / whereas today’s film is very boring.


7. EXPRESIÓN DE LA CONCESIÓN.-

Estos conectores sirven para expresar que algo ocurre a pesar de una contrariedad o una adversidad.



Although ( aunque, a pesar de que)

Though ( aunque, a pesar de que) + oración

Even though (aunque, a pesar de que)

Ex: Although / Though / Even though the students hadn’t studied, they all passed the exam.



In spite of ( a pesar de )

+ sustantivo o verbo en -ing



Despite ( a pesar de )

Ex: In spite of / Despite the late hour, they went on with the meeting.

He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late.

NOTA: Podemos encontrar las expresiones in spite of the fact that y despite the fact that seguidas de oración con verbo en forma personal:

Ex: In spite of the fact that / Despite the fact that she was tired, she played the tennis match and won it.



ACTIVITIES ON CONNECTORS


Before you do these activities, make sure you have checked the handouts on connectors. Keep them in front of you while you are doing the activities. If you realise that you make common mistakes in relation to connectors when writing your compositions, write them down in your list of mistakes (if you have any). Good luck!
1.- LINK THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY MEANS OF A CONNECTOR:

  1. I haven’t studied enough this term. ________________ , I have failed my exams.

  2. They finished playing the match ­­­­­­­­­­­­­_______________they were quite tired.

  3. I want Susan to come to the party ____________ I can introduce her to my friend Peter.

  4. _____________ she didn’t call us, we thought she didn’t want to come to the cinema with us.

  5. Mandy went to the library ___________ give a book back and ___________ borrow a new one.

  6. Things have changed in relation to the women’s role in society; _____________ , both men and women share the housework.

  7. Mike hated Jenny at first. ________________, he fell in love with her in the end.

  8. Sevilla lost their match against Jerez. ______________, Betis was defeated by Jaen.

  9. The teacher gave us more activities ______________ we could practise on Christmas holiday.

  10. A lot of people in poor countries sell drugs ______________ their children can have food to eat.

2.- REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITHOUT CHANGING THE MEANING AND USING THE CONNECTOR GIVEN TO YOU. REMEMBER THAT YOU OFTEN HAVE TO MAKE SOME OTHER CHANGES IN THE SENTENCES:



  1. Despite his heart disease, he ran 5 miles everyday.

  2. David collected stamps when he was a child. He collected The Beatles posters too.

  3. I think Internet has a lot of advantages, but it has a lot of disadvantages too.

  4. My father loved Dire Straits. That’s why he bought all their albums.

  5. As a result of his bad marks at school, he decided to leave three years ago and start to work.

  6. Luke had to repair the roof before the rainy weather came, so I helped him.

  7. Esther called me up. She wanted to talk to me because she felt lonely without her mother.

  8. I don’t like Brad Pitt’s movies. Well, I only like Seven.

  9. David is a very kind person, but his brother is very stupid.

  10. Kathy wanted to listen to Paul McCartney live, so she travelled to Liverpool.

3.- CHOOSE THE BEST OPTION:



  1. In spite of/Although unlawful, they sell tobacco to teenagers under eighteen in that shop.

  2. Since/Due to she was late, the teacher didn’t let her in.

  3. My little brother always tells me tender things so that/ in order to I will play with him.

  4. Frank sold his old car to/for to buy a new one.

  5. My neighbour had no car and, therefore/however, he had to walk everywhere.

  6. Rich countries don’t help poor countries but/thus they exploit them.

  7. My parents will let me go to Italy unless/as long as I get good resulta at the end of the course.

  8. I watch football on TV despite/although I prefer basket to football.

  9. I would like to go to France at Christmas. Although/However, that’s not possible. I don’t have enough money!

  10. The rate of male smokers in Spain is lower that the rate of female ones, whereas/however in France it is just the opposite.

  11. Tomorrow the price of petrol will go up. Consequently/Besides, everybody is taking their cars to the petrol stations today.

  12. I love Steve Wonder, but/although I dislike his last album.

  13. According to some surveys, most policemen do not want to be sent to the Bask Country not to/to not take any risk in relation to terrorist actions.

  14. They decided to put off the meeting, since/because of there were only ten people at the conference room.

  15. Tom promised to lend me his car, however,/.However, he changed his mind the very last minute.

4.- FIND THE MISTAKE AND CHECK THEM SO THAT THE SENTENCE WILL BE CORRECT:



  1. The nurse left so that the doctor spoke to the patient privately.

  2. Tomorrow I’ll go to the barber shop for to have my hair cut.

  3. I was invited to Mike’s party however I didn’t feel like going.

  4. Although Jane was very tired, she decided not to go out last Saturday night.

  5. Some companies want to control the international market. For this, they try to set new factories all over the world.

  6. Although/Although she knew it was Margaret’s birthday, she didn’t buy her anything.

  7. My parents thought I hadn’t sit for any exams last term. But/Nevertheless, I did all of them, though I didn’t pass any.

  8. All Gore is very popular among American people, but/although George Bush Jr. is criticized for his supporting death penalty.

  9. I always wash the dishes after dinner so that/so as to my mother can have a rest.

  10. The coach often talks to the players just before the match for to/in order to encourage them.








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