Los conectores (connectors) son aquellos términos que usamos para señalar las relaciones entre ideas. Así pues, los conectores, también llamados en Inglés linkingwords (nexos), pueden expresar contraste u oposición de ideas, razón, causa y finalidad. Asimismo, se usan para introducir ejemplos y añadir información adicional, o también para mostrar una sucesión de hechos y las consecuencias de los mismos.
1. EXPRESIÓN DE LA RAZÓN Y LA CAUSA.-
Estos conectores indican la razón o la causa de algo.
as (puesto que) + oración con verbo en formal personal
since (ya que)
Ex: Because/ As/ Since it’s late, we should all go home.
NOTA: Si la oración subordinada va al principio, debe ir separada por coma de la oración principal.
Because of (a causa de)
Owing to (debido a) + sustantivo o pronombre
Due to (debido a)
Ex: Because of / Owing to / Due to the weather, we stayed at home.
2. EXPRESIÓN DE LA FINALIDAD.-
Expresan el propósito o la finalidad de algo.
2.1. Oración principal y subordinada con el MISMO sujeto:
Ex: She was quite ill. However / Nevertheless, she went to school.
She was ill, but she didn’t go to the doctor. On the contrary, she went to work.
, while (mientras que)
+ oración con verbo en forma personal
, whereas (mientras que)
Ex: Last night’s film was very interesting, while / whereas today’s film is very boring.
7. EXPRESIÓN DE LA CONCESIÓN.-
Estos conectores sirven para expresar que algo ocurre a pesar de una contrariedad o una adversidad.
Although ( aunque, a pesar de que)
Though ( aunque, a pesar de que) + oración
Even though (aunque, a pesar de que)
Ex: Although / Though / Even though the students hadn’t studied, they all passed the exam.
In spite of ( a pesar de )
+ sustantivo o verbo en -ing
Despite ( a pesar de )
Ex: In spite of / Despitethe late hour, they went on with the meeting.
He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late.
NOTA: Podemos encontrar las expresiones in spite of the fact that y despite the fact that seguidas de oración con verbo en forma personal:
Ex: In spite of the fact that / Despite the fact that she was tired, she played the tennis match and won it.
ACTIVITIES ON CONNECTORS
Before you do these activities, make sure you have checked the handouts on connectors. Keep them in front of you while you are doing the activities. If you realise that you make common mistakes in relation to connectors when writing your compositions, write them down in your list of mistakes (if you have any). Good luck!
1.- LINK THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY MEANS OF A CONNECTOR:
I haven’t studied enough this term. ________________ , I have failed my exams.
They finished playing the match _______________they were quite tired.
I want Susan to come to the party ____________ I can introduce her to my friend Peter.
_____________ she didn’t call us, we thought she didn’t want to come to the cinema with us.
Mandy went to the library ___________ give a book back and ___________ borrow a new one.
Things have changed in relation to the women’s role in society; _____________ , both men and women share the housework.
Mike hated Jenny at first. ________________, he fell in love with her in the end.
Sevilla lost their match against Jerez. ______________, Betis was defeated by Jaen.
The teacher gave us more activities ______________ we could practise on Christmas holiday.
A lot of people in poor countries sell drugs ______________ their children can have food to eat.
2.- REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITHOUT CHANGING THE MEANING AND USING THE CONNECTOR GIVEN TO YOU. REMEMBER THAT YOU OFTEN HAVE TO MAKE SOME OTHER CHANGES IN THE SENTENCES:
Despite his heart disease, he ran 5 miles everyday.
David collected stamps when he was a child. He collected The Beatles posters too.
I think Internet has a lot of advantages, but it has a lot of disadvantages too.
My father loved Dire Straits. That’s why he bought all their albums.
As a result of his bad marks at school, he decided to leave three years ago and start to work.
Luke had to repair the roof before the rainy weather came, so I helped him.
Esther called me up. She wanted to talk to me because she felt lonely without her mother.
I don’t like Brad Pitt’s movies. Well, I only like Seven.
David is a very kind person, but his brother is very stupid.
Kathy wanted to listen to Paul McCartney live, so she travelled to Liverpool.
3.- CHOOSE THE BEST OPTION:
In spite of/Although unlawful, they sell tobacco to teenagers under eighteen in that shop.
Since/Due to she was late, the teacher didn’t let her in.