English connectors



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ENGLISH CONNECTORS


GLOSSARY OF CONNECTORS

They are presented in alphabetic order. Some connectors with the same meaning are grouped together. Use the links to see further explanation.



Actually / Indeed / In fact: en realidad; de hecho.

After: después de.

Afterwards / Later Next / Then: después; entonces.

Also/ as well / too: también

Although / Though / Even though: aunque.

And: y

Anyway: en cualquier caso.

As: cuando, mientras (Time); como (Reason).

As a result: como resultado; en consecuencia.

As soon as: tan pronto como.

As well as: así como; a la vez que (Addition).

Because / Cause: porque

Because of: por.

Before: antes de (prep./conjuction); antes (adv.)

Besides / Moreover / Furthermore / In addition: además.

But: pero

For: para (followed by a gerund)

For example / For instance: por ejemplo.

In case: por si acaso.

In brief / to sum up / in short: en resumen.

In other words: en otras palabras

In conclusion: concluyendo.

In particular: en particular.

However / Nevertheless / Though / Yet: sin embargo.

In contrast to / Contrary to / Unlike: al contrario de; diferente a.

In spite of / Despite: a pesar de

Like: como.

Meanwhile: mientras; mientras tanto.

On the one hand... on the other one: por una parte .... por otra.

Owing to / due to: debido a.

Since: ya que, puesto, que.

So / Therefore / Thus: por lo tanto.

So that / In order that: para que.

Such as: tales como.

To / In order to / So as to: para

Until: hasta

When: cuando

Whenever: siempre que.

Whereas / While: mientras que (Time / Contrast).

Connectors divided into CONJUNCTIONS and ADVERBS.



GLOSSARY OF CONNECTORS GROUPED IN CATEGORIES

Conjunctions

Adverbs

After: después de.

Although / Though / Even though: aunque.

And: y

As: cuando, mientras (Time); como (Reason).

As soon as: tan pronto como.

As well as: así como; a la vez que (Addition).

Because / Cause: porque

Because of: por.

Before: antes de (prep./conjuction)

But: pero

For: para (followed by a gerund)

In case: por si acaso.

In contrast to / Contrary to / Unlike: al contrario de; diferente a.

In spite of / Despite: a pesar de

Like: como.

Owing to / due to: debido a.

Since: ya que, puesto, que.

So that l In order that: para que.

Whereas / While: mientras que.

To / In order to / So as to: para

Until: hasta

When: cuando

Whenever: siempre que.

Such as: tales como.

Actually / Indeed / In fact: en realidad; de hecho.

Afterwards / Later / Next / Then: después; entonces.

Also/ as well / too: también

Anyway: en cualquier caso.

As a result: como resultado; en consecuencia.

Before: antes (adv.)

Besides / Moreover / Furthermore / In addition: además.

For example / For instance: por ejemplo.

In brief / to sum up / in short: en resumen.

In other words: en otras palabras

In conclusion: concluyendo.

So / Therefore / Thus: por lo tanto.

However / Nevertheless / Though / Yet: sin embargo.

Meanwhile: mientras; mientras tanto.

On the one hand... on the other: por una parte .... por otra.

In particular: en particular.




  • Distinguishing between ADVERBS and CONJUNCTION:

  • ADVERBS: They are separated from the previous sentence by “.” or “;” and followed by “ ,“.

We knew you were comig; therefore, we arranged a party

  • CONJUNCTIONS: They join both sentences directly.

“We arranged a party because we knew you were coming

    • Sometimes, the conjunction connector can come at the beginning; then, we separate one sentence from the other with “ ,“.

As we knew you were coming, we arranged a party

    • Some of these linking connective words can only be followed by a NOUN, a PHRASE or GERUND but never a sentence. In some cases, they are actually prepositions: due to, despite, etc.



Addition

Conjunctions

Adverbs

And + SENTENCE or PHRASE /As well as + PHRASE.

“He’s very rich and/as well as competitive”

“He’s very rich and he is very competitive”


Besides / Moreover / Furthermore / In addition.

“He’s quite rich. Futhermore, he owns some of the most important firms in England”



Also/ as well / too.

“He’s very rich and he is very competitive, too.” (At the end of the sentence)

“He’s very rich and he is very competitive as well.” (At the end of the sentence)

“He’s very rich and he is also very competitive.” (Next to the verb)

“He’s very rich and also, he is very competitive.” (Before the sentence)

“He’s very rich and he is very competitive, also.” (At the end. Less usual)





Contrast

Conjunctions

Adverbs

Although / Though / Even though.

Although it was very late, they din’t hurry”



In spite of / Despite + NOUN /GERUND

Despite/In spite of being late, they didn’t hurry”



Despite the fact (that) / In spite of the fact (that) + SENTENCE

Despite/In spite of the fact they were late, they didn’t hurry”



But

“They were late but they didn’t hurry”



Whereas / While (A contrast between two ideas related to the same category)

“Janet is very talkative whereas her sister is very introverted”



In contrast to / Contrary to / Unlike + NOUN (Two entities and the same idea).

Unlike her sister, Janet is very talkative”



However / Nevertheless / Yet.

They were very late. However, they didn’t hurry”



though: at the end of a sentence, it means however in a more informal use.

“They were very late. They didn’ hurry, though



On the one hand... on the other one/hand: they introduce two correlative different sentences.

On the one hand, the idea f the project was really interesting. On the other one, they told us there was not enough money to afford it”



Explanation

Conjunctions

Adverbs

Like / Such as + NOUN /GERUND

“I like all sorts of music like/such as classical music, jazz, rock and techno”




For example / For instance /In other words / Actually / Indeed / In fact / In particular/Anyway.

“I like all sorts of music; for instance, classical music, jazz, rock and techno”

“I like music very much; actually, I like all sorts of music”

“I like music very much. In particular, I like rock and jazz”

“I like classical music, jazz, rock and techno. In other words, I like nearly all sorts of music ”

“It is dangerous; anyway, I'll do it ”




Purpose

Conjunctions

Adverbs

To / In order to / So as to + INFINITIVE

“ We went to London in order to have lunch in a good restaurant”



So that / In order that + SENTENCE

“We went to London in order that our guests could eat in a good restaurant”



For + GERUND(Normally used to express the function of an object or gadget) / NOUN

“A computer is used for saving information among other things”

“We went to London for lunch / for a coffee”

In case: PURPOSE + PROBABILITY

“I’ll take some money in case we go to a restaurant”






Reason

Conjunctions

Adverbs

Because / Cause + SENTENCE

“We didn’t go out because it was raining”



As / Since + SENTENCE (Normally at the beginning of the whole sentence)

As it was raining, we didn’t go out”



Because of /Owing to / Due to/ As a result of + NOUN

“We didn’t go out because of the bad weather”






Result

Conjunctions

Adverbs

Writing and before the adverbs, we get them be used as conjunctions.

“It was raining and as a result, we didn’t go out”




As a result / Consequently / So / Therefore / Thus

“It was raining; as a result, we didn’t go out”




Summary

Conjunctions

Adverbs




As a conclusion / In conclusion / In brief / to sum up / in short.

“She was always crying and complaining. She never helped us with our tasks and she never cared about our problems. In brief / In conclusion, she was a very selfish person.”



Time

Conjunctions

Adverbs

After /Before /Whereas / While /Until /When /Whenever /As /As soon as.

When / As soon as I had finished, I went out for a walk”

Whenever I phone Gary, he is out”.

As /While I was wathing TV, the telephone rang”



Meanwhile / Before

“I was studying in my room; meanwhile, my friends were at the cinema because they didn’t have to do the exam. Before, we had had lunch together”



Time sequence

Conjunctions

Adverbs



First (of all), secondly, thirdly.../ In the first place, in the second place... /Afterwards / Later / Next / Then

First, I had a coffee and read the newspaper. Secondly, I took some notes and checked my agenda and then, I went to class”





RESOURCES TO CONSULT OR VISIT:

  1. What you remember from previous years and notes you already have.

  2. Books:

    1. The Grammar Appendix section in your student’s book.

    2. English Grammar books with exercises. You can consult some of these books in your school library (Recommended for PURPOSE).




  1. Internet:

    1. Try these web pages: you will also find interactive exercises.

      1. www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words

      2. www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwd.html

      3. www.esl.about.com/library/writing/blwrite_connectors.htm

      4. www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/Resources/la/QuickClicks%20Repository/LC_worksheet_linking%20words.pdf (A lot of them)

      5. www.uni-klu.ac.at/hlg/sber/downloads/linking_words.pdf

      6. http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/effective/6c.html (conjunction vs adverb(transition signals)

      7. http://www.aippg.com/ielts/connective_words_english.html (good chart)

      8. http://laproff.wordpress.com/category/all-connectorstext-connectives/ (Another good chart)

      9. http://heptagrama.com/en/i_col_tra_0002.htm (Useful at any time)

      10. http://www.learn-english-today.com/wordgames/hotpot-quizzes/linking-words1.html (Practical quiz)

      11. http://a4esl.org/q/f/y/zz99maa.htm (Practical quiz)

      12. http://a4esl.org/q/h/9801/wp-missouri.html (Practical quiz)

      13. http://www.go4english.com/qg/read.php?lang=en&unitid=881 (Practical quiz)




    1. Search in GOOGLE.






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