Español III el 15 de


DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART II



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DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART II



Remember, a direct object receives the action of the verb.


Bill hit the ball.
“Ball” receives the action of the verb “hit.”



Sherry reads the book.
“Book” receives the action of the verb “reads.”

And, the direct object can also be a person.

Sherry hit Bill.
(DO=Bill)

Also, the direct object answers the question “what?” or “whom?” with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.


Bill hit the ball.
Bill hit what? The ball.


Sherry hit Bill.

Sherry hit whom? Bill.

Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.
Example 1

Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife.

Example 2

Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife.

When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:



me (me)
te
 (you-familiar)
lo, la
 (him, her, it, you-formal)

nos (us)
os
 (you-all-familiar)
los, las
 (them, you-all-formal)

In a negative sentence with one verb, the direct object pronoun is placed between the negative word and the conjugated verb.



Affirmative Sentence

I buy the books.
Compro los libros.



Los compro. (I buy them.)


Negative Sentence

I don’t buy the books.
No compro los libros.



No los compro. (I don’t buy them.)

Compare the following affirmative statements with their negative


counterparts.

Los compras.
No los compras.


Guadalupe siempre lo estudia.
Guadalupe nunca lo estudia.


Ellos nos conocen.
Ellos no nos conocen.

Remember, don’t try to translate word-for-word. Instead, think in terms of phrases, or concepts. For example, the sentence “No los compras” contains two concepts:



  1. los compras (you buy them)

  2. no (makes the whole sentence negative)

fin
Sports equipment store
golf club

el palo de golf



skates


los patines



ball



la pelota



tennis racket



la raqueta de tenis



toothbrush



el cepillo de dientes



shampoo



el champú



soap



el jabón



toothpaste



la pasta dental


aily routines in spanish - la rutina diaria


REMEMBER THE FOLLOWING:

REPASOS/REVIEW!



Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns


Reflexive pronouns work with a reflexive verb to indicate that a person is performing the action toward or for him- or herself. These types of verbs are not very common in English, but are used frequently in Spanish. Many actions related to personal care or daily routines are reflexive, but other verbs can be reflexive as well.

  • Me ducho cada mañana. (I shower (myself) every morning.)



  • Te peinas el pelo. (You brush your hair (yourself).)



  • Se hablaba.  (He was talking to himself.)



  • Me veo en el espejo. (I see myself in the mirror.)

The subject is performing the action on him- or herself, making the object of the verb, the same as the subject. Compare two sentences in which one is reflexive and one is not.

  • I wash myself. (Me lavo.) - myself is the object of wash

  • I wash the dog. (Lavo el perro.) - the dog is the object of wash



When the object of the verb is the same person as the subject, you will need to use a reflexive pronoun that matches the subject of the verb in both number (singular, plural) and person (1st, 2nd, 3rd).

MORE ON


REFLEXIVE VERBS below

  • Me lavo. (I wash myself.)

  • Te lavas. (You wash yourself.)

  • Se lava. (He washes himself./She washes herself./It washes itself./You wash yourself.)



  • Nos lavamos. (We wash ourselves.)

  • Os laváis. (You wash yourselves.)

  • Se lavan. (They wash themselves./You wash yourselves.)


Reflexive Pronouns


Reflexive pronouns have almost the same forms as indirect object pronouns except se is used in place of le and les for the third person.

The reflexive pronoun will always be the same person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and number (singular, plural) as the subject of the sentence.


Reflexive Pronoun Forms


 

Singular

Plural

1st person

me (to, for, from, or off myself)

nos (to, for, from, or off ourselves)

2nd person

te (to, for, from, or off yourself)

os (to, for, from, or off yourselves)

3rd person

se (to, for, from, or off himself, herself, itself, yourself)

se (to, for, from, or off themselves, yourselves)

Reflexive Pronoun Uses


Reflexive verbs will require the use of reflexive pronouns to indicate that the direct object of the verb is also the subject, that the subject is performing the action on him- or her-self. Notice that the reflexive pronoun has the same person as the verb ending.

  • lavarse (to wash one’s self) - Me lavo las manos. (I wash my hands.)

  • sacarse (to take something off one’s self) - Nos sacamos los guantes. (We our gloves off (ourselves).)

  • despertarse (to wake up) - Se despiertan a las seis cada mañana. (They wake themselves up at six o’clock every morning.)

As mentioned before, you can also add reflexive pronouns to verbs not regularly reflexive verbs in order to make them reflexive.

  • verse (to see one’s self)

  • hablarse (to talk to one’s self)

  • escribirse (to write to one’s self)

  • comprarse (to buy (something) for one’s self)

Reflexive verbs can also be used to indicate an emotional response to something. When a person becomes angry, sad, happy, etc., you can express this by using reflexive verbs.

  • Me enojé rápidamente. (I got angry quickly.)

  • Te alegras de hablar español. (It makes you happy to speak Spanish.)

  • Se aburre en la clase de matemáticas. (He gets bored in Math class.)

Reflexive pronouns can also be used to add emphasis to a seemingly regular situation. The pronouns are not normally translated directly into English, but the sense of something extra is there in Spanish.

  • Comí el pastel. (I ate the cake.)

  • Me comí el pastel. (I ate up the cake/I ate the whole cake.)

  • Estúdialo. (Study it.)

  • Estúdiatelo. (Really study it./Study it thoroughly.)

Reflexive Pronoun Placement


Reflexive pronouns are placed immediately before simple conjugated verbs and negative commands.

  • sacarse - Yo me saco los guantes. (I take off my gloves.)

  • afeitarse - Tú te afeitas la cara. (You shave your face.)

  • acostarse - Ellas se acuestan. (They go to bed.)

  • escribirse - No se escriba notas.  (Don’t write notes to yourself.)

Reflexive Pronouns are attached to affirmative commands and in the case of compound verbs (present progressive, ir+a+infinitive, etc.) the pronoun can either be attached to the infinitive or present participle or go before the conjugated verb.

  • ducharhse - Estoy duchándome. / Me estoy duchando. (I am showering (myself).)

  • quitarse - Quítate el sombrero. (Take off your hat.)

  • sentarse - Voy a sentarme. / Me voy a sentar. (I am going to sit (myself) down.)

Reflexive Verb Examples


Below is a list of common reflexive verbs. This is not a complete list, but rather a reference to help you understand which kinds of verbs are reflexive.

aburrirse (de) (to get bored with)

despertarse (to wake up)

enojarse (con) (to get mad about)

quitarse (to take off)

acordarse (de) (to remember)

destaparse (to uncover)

irse (to leave)

reponerse (to get better)

acostarse (to go to bed)

desvestirse (to get undressed)

limarse (las uñas) (to file)

secarse (to dry off)

afeitarse (to shave)

disgustarse (de) (to become upset about)

maquillarse (to put on makeup)

sentarse (to sit down)

alegrarse (de) (to be glad about)

distraerse (to distract oneself)

mirarse (to look at oneself)

sostenerse (to support)

bañarse (to bathe)

divertirse (con) (to enjoy oneself with)

olvidarse (de) (to forget about)

subirse (to get up)

cepillarse (to brush)

dormirse (to go to sleep)

peinarse (to comb one's hair)

taparse (to cover up oneself)

convertirse (en) (to become)

ducharse (to shower)

pintarse (los labios) (to put on lipstick)

torcerse (to twist)

desayunarse (to eat breakfast)

enfermarse (to become ill)

probarse (to try on)

vestirse (to get dressed)

despedirse (to say good-bye)

enloquecerse (to go crazy)

ponerse (to put on)

volverse (to become)

FIN de la lección de hoy

Mas de la gramática

Reflexive Verbs with Meaning Changes


Making a verb reflexive can change its meaning in ways that you wouldn’t find very logical. Some are more subtle than others, while some are quite different. Some of these verbs are listed below.

abonar

to pay money

abonarse

to subscribe to (a magazine, newspaper, etc.)

abrir

to open

abrirse

to open up (confide in someone)

acordar

to agree/to decide

acordarse

to remember

acusar

to accuse

acusarse

to confess

callar

to be quiet

callarse

to become quiet

cerrar

to close

cerrarse

to close oneself off emotionally

combinar

to combine

combinarse

to take turns

dormir

to sleep

dormirse

to fall asleep

ir

to go

irse

to go away

llevar

to carry

llevarse

to take away

poner

to put

ponerse

to put on/to wear

salir

to leave

salirse

to leave unexpectedly/to leak






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