Facultad de letras y ciencias humanas departamento de humanidades



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172 DE JONG, G. (1979) “Independent living: from social movement to analytic paradigm”. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 60: 435-446, 1979.

173 FINKELSTEIN, V. (1980) “Attitudes and Disabled People: Issues for Discussion”. New York, World Rehabilitation Fund.

174 OLIVER, Michael (1983) “Social Work with Disabled People”, London, Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd.

175 "No otherwise qualified handicapped individual in the United States as defined in Section 7 shall, solely by reason of his handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."

176 BARNES, Colin (1991) “Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination: A Case for Anti discrimination Legislation”. Hurst and Co in Association with the British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, London.

177 Ver al respecto las siguientes publicaciones: DAA (2004) “Definitions of Disability”, Disability Tribune, April/May 2004, Briefing paper. - Disability Awareness in Action (DAA), London, y DEMOS (2006) “Disablist Britain: Barriers to independent living for disabled people in 2006”. Report prepared by Paul Miller, Sarah Gillinson and Julia Huber from Demos. Published by Scope, London. January 2006.

178 ABBERLEY, Paul (1987) “The Concept of Oppression and the Development of a Social Theory of Disability”, in “Disability, Handicap and Society”, 2, 1, pp. 5– 21.

179 European Commission (2004) “Comparative Study on the collection of data to measure the extent and impact of discrimination within the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands”. European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs.

180 CERMI (2002) “La Discriminación por Motivos de Discapacidad. Análisis de las respuestas recibidas al Cuestionario sobre Discriminación por motivos de Discapacidad promovido por el CERMI Estatal”. Por Antonio Jiménez Lara y Agustín Huete García, sociólogos. Comité Español de Representantes de Minusválidos (CERMI).

181 Ver al respecto: DAA (2004) “Definitions of Disability”, Disability Tribune, April/May 2004, Briefing paper. - Disability Awareness in Action (DAA), London. Acá se dice del discapacidismo (disablism) que es: “the discriminatory, oppressive and abusive behaviour arising from the belief that disabled people are inferior or less than human”.

182 http://www.scope.org.uk

183 “Time to get equal” – Ver al respecto la web: http://www.timetogetequal.org.uk/

184 “The tenets of other civil rights movements apply to the disability rights perspective as well. The defining aspect of this perspective is that people with disabilities, as a group, have been subject to pervasive and persistent discriminatory treatment. The remedy for such treatment is a prohibition against discrimination, protection of civil rights, and heightened empowerment of people with disabilities. Beginning with the passage of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, people with disabilities were acknowledged by Congress as a class of people subject to pervasive discrimination. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) affirmed this view. Disability policy has increasingly acknowledged that--like race, ethnicity, gender, and age--disability is a characteristic that invites discrimination”. Ver: “Independent Living: The Philosophy behind Disability Rights”, http://www.smc.edu/disabledstudent/Guide/34philos.htm

185 Ver al respecto: http://law.justia.com/us/codes/title42/42usc12101.html

186 Convención Interamericana para la eliminación de todas las formas de Discriminación contra las Personas con Discapacidad, Aprobada en el XXIX período ordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General de la OEA, Primera sesión plenaria, celebrada en Guatemala el 7 de junio de 1999, con Resolución AG/RES. 1608 (XXIX-O/99). Esta Convención ha sido aprobada por el Congreso Peruano mediante Resolución Legislativa N° 27484.

187 Convención sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad - Aprobada por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas en su Sexagésimo primer período de sesiones, mediante Resolución A/RES/61/106, del 13 de diciembre de 2006.

188 http://www.dredf.org/international/sweden3.html

189 TAYLOR, Charles, (1992) “La política del reconocimiento”, en: “El multiculturalismo y la política del reconocimiento” / comentarios de Amy Gutmann... [et al.]. México, D. F., Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1993.

190 YOUNG, Iris Marion (1990) “La justicia y la política de la diferencia”. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. 2000. Traducción de “Justice and the Politics of Difference” (Princeton University Press, 1990).

191 HONNETH, Axel (1992) “La lucha por el reconocimiento: Por una gramática moral de los conflictos sociales”. Barcelona, Crítica, 1997. Traducción del alemán “Kampf um Anerkennung. Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte”. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1992.

192 BARNES, Colin (1991) “Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination: A Case for Anti discrimination Legislation”. Hurst and Co in Association with the British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, London.

193 Ver al respecto los últimos párrafos del Capítulo 2 “A Brief History of Discrimination and Disabled People”, del libro ya señalado de Colin Barnes, “Las Personas con discapacidad en Gran Bretaña y la Discriminación”.

194 “We are tired of being statistics, cases, wonderfully courageous examples to the world, pitiable objects to stimulate funding”. Ver: HUNT, Paul (1966) “A Critical Condition” in HUNT, Paul (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London, Geoffrey Chapman, pp. 145-164.

195 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) “Pride against Prejudice: Transforming Attitudes to Disability”. The Women's Press Ltd, London, 1991.

196 YEE, Silvia (2002) “Where Prejudice, Disability and "Disabilism" Meet” in: BRESLIN, Mary Lou and YEE, Silvia, Ed (2002) “Disability Rights, Law & Policy: International and National Perspectives”. Papers conceived & Commissioned by the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF). Transnational Publishers.

197 GOFFMAN, Erving (1963) “Estigma: la identidad deteriorada”, Buenos Aires, Amorrortu, 1970. Traducción del inglés: “Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity”, Harmondsworth, Penguin. 1963.

198 HUNT, Paul (1966) “A Critical Condition” in HUNT, Paul (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London, Geoffrey Chapman, pp. 145-164.

199 BARNES, Colin (1991) “Discrimination: disabled people and the media”. Contact, No. 70, Winter, pp. 45-48: 1991. - BARNES, C. (1992) “Disabling Imagery and the Media” (Halifax, Ryburn/BCODP).

200 SHAPIRO, Joseph P. (1993) “No pity. People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement”. Times Books - A Division of Random House, New York, 1993.

201 SHAKESPEARE, Tom (1994) “Cultural Representations of Disabled People: Dustbins for Disavowal” in “Disability and Society” No. 9, Vol. 3. pp. 283-301.

202 YEE, Silvia (2002) op. cit.

203 “the phenomenon of disability prejudice is not widely understood or truly accepted among the political, legal and social institutions that are counted upon to put anti-discrimination laws into practice”, YEE, Silvia (2002) Op cit

204 “the future of disability anti-discrimination (is threatened), because laws and policies are only effective in so far as they are maintained, enforced and accepted by a society that understands the underlying need for such laws”, YEE, Silvia (2002) Op cit.

205 "prejudice which expresses itself in discrimination and oppression." Paul Hunt, A Critical Condition in Stigma: The Experience of Disability (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1966), 1-2

206 “… the gap between the way they view themselves and the way others insist on seeing them creates barriers to their full inclusion on the American life”, p. iii, SHAPIRO, Joseph P. (1993) “No pity. People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement”. Times Books - A Division of Random House, New York, 1993.

207 El 13 de diciembre de 2006 la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas aprobó la “Convención sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad”, mediante Resolución A/RES/61/106

208 GOFFMAN, Erving (1963) “Estigma: la identidad deteriorada”, op. cit.

209 Ver al respecto: HONNETH, Axel (1992) “La lucha por el reconocimiento: Por una gramática moral de los conflictos sociales”. Barcelona, Crítica, 1997. Traducción del alemán “Kampf um Anerkennung. Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte”. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1992.

210 ABBERLEY, Paul (1987) “The Concept of Oppression and the Development of a Social Theory of Disability”, in “Disability, Handicap and Society”, 2, 1, pp. 5– 21. Reprinted as CHAPTER 10 (In ‘Disability Studies: Past Present and Future’ edited by Len Barton and Mike Oliver (1997); Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 160 – 178).

211 A recent study in the Journal of Maxillo-facial Surgery, reported in New Society in June 1985, claims that on the basis of a photograph study "children don't start reacting badly to abnormal looks until they are at least 11 years old" and that consequently "discrimination against funny-looking people is not some innate result of evolutionary forces, it is socially learned" (New Society, 1985). Ver: P. Abberley op.cit.

212 SHAPIRO, Joseph P. (1993) “No pity. People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement”. Times Books - A Division of Random House, New York, 1993.

213 SHAPIRO, Joseph P. (1993) “No pity. People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement”. Times Books - A Division of Random House, New York, 1993.

214 Shapiro, op.cit. pág. 3.

215 Shapiro, op. cit. pág. 4.

216 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) “Pride Against Prejudice: Transforming Attitudes to Disability”. The Women's Press Ltd, London, 1991. Ver “Introduction”.

217 Susan Griffin, 1982, “Made form this Earth”, The Women Press, p. 6, citada por J. Morris op. cit.

218 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) op.cit. pág. 9.

219 BARNES, Colin (1991) “Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination: A Case for Anti discrimination Legislation”. Hurst and Co in Association with the British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, London. Ver en particular el capítulo 2 “A Brief History of Discrimination and Disabled People”. También: BARNES, Colin (1997) “A Legacy of Oppression: A History of Disability in Western Culture”. CHAPTER 1 (In ‘Disability Studies: Past Present and Future’ edited by Len Barton and Mike Oliver (1997); Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 3 – 24).

220 Fuentes históricas que remiten a Heródoto y Plutarco afirman que: “Esparta practicaba una rígida eugenesia. Nada más nacer, el niño espartano era examinado por una comisión de ancianos en el "Lesjé" (“Pórtico”), para determinar si era hermoso y bien formado. En caso contrario se le consideraba una boca inútil y una carga para la ciudad. En consecuencia, se le conducía al "Apótetas" (lugar de abandono), al pie del monte Taigeto, donde se le arrojaba a un barranco”. Ver http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esparta

221 “The Romans too were enthusiastic advocates of infanticide for `sickly' or `weak' children drowning them in the river Tiber”. Cf. BARNES, Colin (1997) “A Legacy of Oppression: A History of Disability in Western Culture”. Op.cit.

222 BARNES, Colin (1992) “Disabling Imagery and the Media. An Exploration of the Principles for Media Representations of Disabled People” (Halifax, Ryburn / BCODP).

223 Shakespeare, Tom (1994) “Cultural representation of disabled people: dustbins for disavowal?” Disability and Society 9, 3, pp 283 – 299.


224 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) “Pride Against Prejudice: Transforming Attitudes to Disability”. The Women's Press Ltd, London, 1991. Ver página 15.

225 PFEIFFER, David (2002) "The Philosophical Foundations of Disability Studies", in: Disability Studies Quarterly, Spring 2002, Volume 22, No. 2, pages 3-23.

226 “We had a common agenda - how do you change an oppressive system rather than spend fruitless time appealing to the prejudiced to cease their discrimination?”. FINKELSTEIN, V. (2001) “A Personal Journey Into Disability Politics”. First presented at Leeds University Centre For Disability Studies, February 2001.

227 HUNT, Paul. (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London (UK), Geoffrey Chapman, 1966.

228 HUNT, Paul (1966) “A Critical Condition” in HUNT, Paul (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London, Geoffrey Chapman, pp. 145-164.

229 UPIAS (1976). “Fundamental Principles of Disability”, (London: Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation - UPIAS).

230 “In our view, it is society which disables physically impaired people. Disability is something imposed on top of our impairments by the way we are unnecessarily isolated and excluded from full participation in society. Disabled people are therefore an oppressed group in society". To understand this it is necessary to grasp the distinction between the physical impairment and the social situation, called 'disability', of people with such impairment. Thus we define impairment as lacking part of or all of a limb, or having a defective limb, organ or mechanism of the body; and disability as the disadvantage or restriction of activity caused by a contemporary social organisation which takes no or little account of people who have physical impairments and thus excludes them from participation in the mainstream of social activities. Physical disability is therefore a particular form of social oppression”. UPIAS (1976) op. cit. p. 3-4

231 “It follows from this analysis that having low incomes, for example, is only one aspect of our oppression. It is a consequence of our isolation and segregation, in every area of life, such as education, work, mobility, housing, etc. Poverty is one symptom of our oppression, but it is not the cause”. Op.cit.

232 ABBERLEY, Paul (1987) “The Concept of Oppression and the Development of a Social Theory of Disability”, in “Disability, Handicap and Society”, 2, 1, pp. 5– 21. Reprinted as CHAPTER 10 (In ‘Disability Studies: Past Present and Future’ edited by Len Barton and Mike Oliver (1997); Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 160 – 178).

233 EISENSTEIN, Zillah R (1979) Developing a theory of capitalist patriarchy and socialist feminism, in: Capitalist Patriarchy and Socialist Feminism (New York, Monthly Review Press).

234 YOUNG, Iris Marion (1990) “La justicia y la política de la diferencia”. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. 2000. Traducción de “Justice and the Politics of Difference” (Princeton University Press, 1990). Ver al respecto el Capítulo II, página 71 y siguientes.

235 FINKELSTEIN, V. (1980) “Attitudes and Disabled People: Issues for Discussion”. New York, World Rehabilitation Fund.

236 OLIVER, Michael (1990) “The Politics of Disablement”, London, The Macmillan Press Ltd.; quien sostiene que la discapacidad y la dependencia son “creación social” del capitalismo industrial.

237 Acá la autora hace un juego de palabras propia del idioma inglés pues distingue entre las personas sin discapacidad (abled body) y las personas discapacitadas (disabled). Se tiene así a los “abled-body” frente a los “dis-abled” resaltando en ambos casos, gracias al guión, la palabra “abled”:

238 “… we take the view that disability is a socially-created category derived from labour relations, a product of the exploitative economic structure of capitalist society: one which creates (and then oppresses) the so-called ‘dis-abled’ body as one of the conditions that allow the capitalist class to accumulate wealth. Seen in this light, disability is an aspect of the central contradiction of capitalism, and disability politics that do not accept this are, at best, fundamentally flawed strategies of reform or worse, forms of bourgeois ideology that prevent this from being seen. RUSSELL, Marta, & Malhotra, Ravi (2002). "Capitalism and Disability: Advances and Contradictions." Socialist Register. Link

239 TOWNSEND, P (1979) Poverty in the United Kingdom (London, Penguin).

240 GOFFMAN, Erving (1963) “Estigma: la identidad deteriorada”, Buenos Aires, Amorrortu, 1970. Traducción del inglés: “Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity”, Harmondsworth, Penguin. 1963.

241 "Identical behaviours have different social meanings when produced by a normal and by a disabled person. The pleasant competent `wheelchair bound' group leader aroused anger and got less help because she appeared to violate the stereotyped stigma role requirement which seems to require the disabled person to suffer and be inadequate. When the confederate in the wheelchair was caustic and hostile, this seemed to confirm social expectations and subjects were willing to offer more help." Katz et al. (1979, 506)

242 CHARLTON, James I. (1998) “Nothing About Us Without Us. Disability, Oppression and Empowerment”. Berkeley: University of California Press.

243 BARNES, Colin (1997) “A Legacy of Oppression: A History of Disability in Western Culture”. CHAPTER 1 (In ‘Disability Studies: Past Present and Future’ edited by Len Barton and Mike Oliver (1997); Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 3 – 24).

244 BARNES, Colin (1996) “Theories of Disability and the Origins of the Social Oppression of Disabled People in Western Society” in BARTON, Len (ed.) (1996) “Disability and Society: Emerging Issues and Insights”. London, Longman.

245 “… to appreciate fully the extent and significance of the oppression of disabled people an understanding of history and its relationship to western culture: the central value system around which western society is clustered, is vital”. Barnes, A Legacy…

246 BARNES, Colin (1991) “Disabled People in Britain and Discrimination: A Case for Anti discrimination Legislation”. Hurst and Co in Association with the British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, London.

247 Esta opinión de Barnes ha sido ampliamente refutada por M. Miles en “Martin Luther and Childhood Disability in 16th Century Germany: What did he write? What did he say?” Revised and extended version of a paper that was first published with copyright by The Haworth Press, Inc., Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, in the Journal of Religion, Disability & Health (2001), vol. 5 (4) pp. 5-36, and is here reproduced with permission. Internet publication URL: www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles2005b.html

248 HUNT, Paul “A Critical Condition” in HUNT, Paul (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London, Geoffrey Chapman, pp. 145-164.

249 YOUNG, Iris Marion (1990) “La justicia y la política de la diferencia”. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. 2000. Traducción de “Justice and the Politics of Difference” (Princeton University Press, 1990).

250 FINKELSTEIN, V. (1980) “Attitudes and Disabled People: Issues for Discussion”. New York, World Rehabilitation Fund.

251 CROSS, Merry (1994) “Abuse” in Lois Keith (ed.) “Mustn't Grumble: An Anthology of Writing by Disabled Women”. London: Women's Press.

252 Ver los comentarios que hemos realizado al respecto, al analizar los trabajos de Paul Hunt en pág. 51 y 93.

253 OLIVER, Michael (1996) "A Sociology of Disability or a Disablist Sociology" In: Len Barton (ed) Disability and Society: Emerging. Issues and Insights. London, Harlow: Longman. Sobre la traducción del término “disablist”, por “discapacidista”, véase lo que hemos comentado en la página 111.

254 OLIVER, Michael (1986) “Social policy and disability: Some theoretical issues”, Disability, Handicap and Society, 1, pp. 5-17.

255 RYAN, Joanna and THOMAS, Frank (1980), “The Politics of Mental Handicap”, London: Free Association Books

256 "A significant social movement becomes possible when there is a revision in the manner in which a substantial group of people, looking at some misfortune, see it no longer as a misfortune warranting charitable consideration but as an injustice which is intolerable in society." TURNER, Ralph H. (1969) "The Theme of Contemporary Social Movements", British Journal of Sociology (December 1969), pp. 390-405. Citado por DE JONG, G. (1979) “Independent living: from social movement to analytic paradigm”. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 60: 435-446, 1979.

257 Poverty is not only about rates of income but also about social exclusion and powerlessness. Simon Maxwell (1998) writes that people become poor because they are excluded from social institutions where access is based on status, privilege, race and gender. Exclusion leads to lack of resources, lower expectations, poor health and poor education. For these purposes, we are looking at those disabled people who experience chronic poverty in terms of income, as well as wider social exclusion. Rebecca Yeo, “Chronic Poverty and Disability”. Pág. 9.
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