Facultad de letras y ciencias humanas departamento de humanidades



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259 El Programa de Acción Mundial para Impedidos fue aprobado el 3 de diciembre de 1982 por la Asamblea General de las NNUU con la resolución 37/52.

260 The Department for International Development (DFID), el “Departamento para el desarrollo internacional” es el departamento del gobierno británico responsable de promover el desarrollo y la reducción de la pobreza.

261 Esto mismo afirmó el ex presidente del Banco Mundial cuando afirmó: “Unless disabled people are brought into the development mainstream, it will be impossible to cut poverty in half by 2015”. Ver: Wolfensohn, James D. “Poor, Disabled and Shut Out”. En: Washington Post Journal. December 3, 2002.

262 Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty. Eliminating world poverty is unlikely to be achieved unless the rights and needs of people with disabilities are taken into account. According to the United Nations, one person in 20 has a disability. More than three out of four of these live in a developing country. More often than not they are among the poorest of the poor. Recent World Bank estimates suggest they may account for as many as one in five of the world’s poorest. Disability limits access to education and employment, and leads to economic and social exclusion. Poor people with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and disability, each being both a cause and a consequence of the other. DFID (2000) “Disability, Poverty and Development”. (DFID), London.

263 DFID op.cit.

264 Véase en particular las siguientes publicaciones: “Inclusion of the disability dimension in Nordic development cooperation”. Copenhagen November 2000. ATLAS Alliance - DSI - FIDIDA - SHIA; “The inclusion of disability in norwegian development cooperation. Planning and monitoring for the inclusion of disability issues in mainstream development activities”. ORAD (Norwegian Agency for International Development) January 2002. http://www.norad.no/norsk/files/InklusionOfDisability.doc

265 Inclusion International (2004) "Reporte del Estado de Pobreza y Discapacidad en las Américas. Primera Parte: Pobreza y Discapacidad en las Américas; Entendiendo la Exclusión. Estudio realizado por Inclusión Internacional y la Asociación Noruega para las Personas con Discapacidades de Desarrollo (NFU). Octubre 2004. pág. 89

266 TODMAN, Lynn C. (2004) “Reflections on Social Exclusion: What is it? How is it different U.S. conceptualizations of disadvantage? And, why might Americans consider integrating it into U.S. social policy discourse?” Department of Sociology and Social Research University of Milan – Bicocca, Italy. Ver el abstract, pág. 1

267 Maxwell, Simon (1998), The Guardian.

268 Poverty is not only about rates of income but also about social exclusion and powerlessness. Simon Maxwell (1998) writes that people become poor because they are excluded from social institutions where access is based on status, privilege, race and gender. Exclusion leads to lack of resources, lower expectations, poor health and poor education. For these purposes, we are looking at those disabled people who experience chronic poverty in terms of income, as well as wider social exclusion. Rebecca Yeo, “Chronic Poverty and Disability”. Pág. 9.

269 BADELT, Christoph (1999) “The Role of NPOs in Policies to Combat Social Exclusion”. SP Discussion Paper 9912, Washington: The World Bank: Social Protection, June 1999.

270 Whether the source of exclusion is poverty, racism, fear of differences or lack of political clout, the consequences are the same: a lack of recognition and acceptance; powerlessness and ‘voicelessness’; economic vulnerability; and, diminished life experiences and limited life prospects. For society as a whole, the social exclusion of individuals and groups can become a major threat to social cohesion and economic prosperity. En: Foreword: The Laidlaw Foundation's Perspective - BACH, Michael (2002) “Social Inclusion as Solidarity: Rethinking the Child Rights Agenda”. The Laidlaw Foundation. Perspectives on social inclusion working paper series. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

271 Social inclusion reflects a proactive, human development approach to social wellbeing that calls for more than the removal of barriers or risks. It requires investments and action to bring about the conditions for inclusion, as the population health and international human development movements have taught us. BACH, Michael (2002) op.cit.

272 This strongly suggests that social inclusion extends beyond bringing the ‘outsiders’ in, or notions of the periphery versus the centre. It is about closing physical, social and economic distances separating people, rather than only about eliminating boundaries or barriers between us and them. BACH, Michael (2002) op.cit.

273 MORRIS, Jenny (2001) “That kind of life: Social exclusion and young disabled people with high levels of support needs”. Manuscript copy of report published by Scope in 2001.

274 BURCHARDT, Tania, LE GRAND, Julian and PIACHAUD, David, (1999) “Social exclusion in Britain 1991-1995”, Social Policy and Administration, Vol 33, No 3, pp 227-244

275 ‘An individual is socially excluded if (a) he or she is geographically resident in a society and (b) he or she does not participate in the normal activities of citizens in that society’, Burchardt, Le Grand and Piachaud, 1999, op.cit. pág. 230., citado por Jenny Morris.

276 Normal activities are defined thus: there are five dimensions that we consider to represent the activities in which it is most important that individuals participate: to have a reasonable living standard, to possess a degree of security, to be engaged in an activity which is valued by others, to have some decision-making power, and to be able to draw support from immediate family, friends and a wider community’, Burchardt, Le Grand and Piachaud, 1999, op.cit. pág. 231., citado por Jenny Morris.

277 BACH, Michael (2002) “Social Inclusion as Solidarity: Rethinking the Child Rights Agenda”. The Laidlaw Foundation. Perspectives on social inclusion working paper series. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

278 Kymlicka, Will, and Wayne Norman. 1994. Return of the Citizen: A Survey of Recent Work on

Citizenship Theory. Ethics (January): 352-81.



279 Young, Iris Marion. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

________ . 2000. Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



280 Chandoke, Neera. 1995. State and Civil Society: Explorations in Political Theory. Delhi: Sage.

________. 1999. Beyond Secularism: The Rights of Religious Minorities. New Delhi: Oxford



University Press.

281 Ignatieff, Michael. 2000. The Rights Revolution. Toronto: Anansi.

282 HONNETH, Axel (1992) “La lucha por el reconocimiento: Por una gramática moral de los conflictos sociales”. Barcelona, Crítica, 1997.

283 YFANTOPOULOS, Yannis (coord.) “Disability and Social Exclusion in the European Union: Time for change, tools for change”. Final study report, June 2002. Under the auspices of the European Disability Forum. With the support of the European Commission.

284 “According to UNHCR, Poverty is a human condition characterized by the sustained or chronic deprivation of the resources, capabilities, choices, security and power necessary for the enjoyment of an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights”. Citado en: http://www.worldenable.net/cdpf2004/papercbr.htm

285 YFANTOPOULOS, Yannis (coord.) “Disability and Social Exclusion in the European Union: Time for change, tools for change”. Final study report, June 2002. Under the auspices of the European Disability Forum. With the support of the European Commission.

286 United Nation’s World Development Report on Poverty - http://www1.worldbank.org/prem/poverty/wdrpoverty/index.htm

287 YFANTOPOULOS, Yannis (coord.) “Discapacidad y exclusión social en la Unión Europea: Tiempo de cambio, herramientas para el cambio”. Informe definitivo. Bajo los auspicios del Foro Europeo de la Discapacidad. Con el apoyo de la Comisión Europea -- Madrid: CERMI. Julio, 2003; Pág. 129-130 .

288 DRTF, Disability Rights Task Force (1999) "From Exclusion to Inclusion: A Report of the Disability Rights Task Force on Civil Rights for Disabled People"

289 MITRA, Sophie (2004) “The Capability Approach and Disability”. Program for Disability Research. A unit of the Disability Research Institute of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a constituent unit of the School of Management and Labor Relations at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. April 2004.

290 SEN, Amartya (1999) "Desarrollo y Libertad". Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, Mayo de 2000. Traducción de “Development as Freedom”, New York: Knopf, 1999.

291 SEN, Amartya (2004) “Disability and Justice”, Speech held at 2004 World Bank International Disability Conference, “Disability and Inclusive Development: Sharing, Learning and Building Alliances”, Dec. 2004.

292 "rights, liberties, and opportunities, income and wealth, and a social basis of self-respect.". John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 60-5), citado por SEN, Amartya (2004) “Disability and Justice” op.cit.

293 Esto lo han demostrado otros discípulos de Sen como: ZAIDI, Asghar and BURCHARDT, Tania (2004) 'Comparing incomes when needs differ: Equivalisation for the extra costs of disability in the UK', Review of Income and Wealth, CASEpaper 64, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. February 2003, London School of Economics. y KUKLYS, Wiebke (2004) “A Monetary Approach to Capability Measurement of the Disabled. Evidence from the UK”. University of Cambridge. February 7, 2004.

294 SEN, Amartya (2004) “Disability and Justice” op.cit.

295 SEN, Amartya (1999) "Desarrollo y Libertad". Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, Mayo de 2000. Traducción de “Development as Freedom”, New York: Knopf, 1999.

296 “Given what can be achieved through intelligent and humane intervention, it is amazing how inactive and smug most societies are about the prevalence of the unshared burden of disability. In feeding this inaction, conceptual confusion plays a significant role”. Sen, op.cit.

297 RAWLS, John. (1971) “Teoría de la Justicia”. Fondo de Cultura Económica: México, 1995. Traducción del inglés: A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, pág. 17.

298 Rawls, op. cit. pág. 18.

299 Rawls, op. cit. pág. 18.

300 “Even though the established theories of justice turn out to be inadequate in providing a satisfactory understanding of the handicap of disability, the entrenched hold of these traditional approaches not only affects discourses in philosophy, but also influences the reach of public discussion on this critically important subject”. Sen, op. cit.

301 “While economics, particularly defunct economics, must take some of the blame for the ills of the world, economics does not have a monopoly in being majestically defunct. Philosophy too - from very high-brow deliberations in abstract treatises to the immediate reaches of everyday reflections on right and wrong - exerts a remarkably powerful influence on the ideas that affect policies, institutions and practice”.

302 Sen, op. cit.

303 "The most beautiful and enriching trait of human life is diversity - a diversity that can never be used to justify inequality. Repressing diversity will impoverish the human race. We must facilitate and strengthen diversity in order to reach a more equitable world for us all. For equality to exist, we must avoid standards that define what a normal human life should be or the normal way of achieving success and happiness. The only normal quality that can exist among human beings is life itself." Dr Oscar Arias, former President, Costa Rica – Citado en: "Introduction" 3, 3 in From Exclusion to Inclusion: A Report of the Disability Rights Task Force on Civil Rights for Disabled People (London: Department for Education and Employment, 1999).

304 Como hemos señalado en varias partes de nuestra investigación el movimiento por el reconocimiento de los derechos civiles fue iniciado por el movimiento afroamericano, al que siguieron otros movimientos como el de la liberación femenina, el movimiento homosexual, etc.

305 Véase YOUNG, Iris Marion (1990) “La justicia y la política de la diferencia”. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. 2000. Traducción de “Justice and the Politics of Difference” (Princeton University Press, 1990).

306 GOODLAD, Robina and RIDDELL, Sheila (2003) “Social justice and disabled people: principles and challenges”. Paper to ‘Disabled people and social justice’ Conference, to mark European Year of Disabled People, Friday 14 November, The Lighthouse, Mitchell Lane, Glasgow

307 DANERMARK, Berth & GELLERSTEDT, Lotta Coniavitis (2004) “Social justice: redistribution and recognition -- a non-reductionist perspective on disability”. Disability & Society, June 2004, vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 339-353.

308 LISTER, Ruth (2005) “Recognition and voice: the challenge for social justice”. Seminar Series: Social Justice and Public Policy. Seminar 1: Social Justice in 2005. London, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, 21 March 2005.

309 TAYLOR, Charles, (1992) “La política del reconocimiento”, en: “El multiculturalismo y la política del reconocimiento” / comentarios de Amy Gutmann... [et al.]. México, D. F., Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1993.

310 YOUNG, Iris Marion (2005) “Structural Injustice and the Politics of Difference”. Paper for the AHRC Centre for Law, Gender, and Sexuality. Intersectionality Workshop, 21/22 May 2005, Keele University, UK

311 Véase por ejemplo: FRASER, Nancy (1995), “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Postsocialist' Age”, New Left Review, No. 212 (July/August 1995) pp. 68 - 93, reprinted in Fraser, “Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the "Postsocialist" Condition” (Routledge, 1997), así como: FRASER, Nancy (1998) “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition and Participation,” in: The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, volume 19, ed. Grethe B. Peterson (The University of Utah Press, 1998), pp. 1-67..

312 YOUNG, Iris Marion (1990) “La justicia y la política de la diferencia”. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. 2000. Traducción de “Justice and the Politics of Difference” (Princeton University Press, 1990).

313 YOUNG, Iris Marion (2000) “Inclusion and Democracy” (Oxford University Press, 2000).

314 YOUNG, Iris Marion (2005) “Structural Injustice and the Politics of Difference”. Paper for the AHRC Centre for Law, Gender, and Sexuality. Intersectionality Workshop, 21/22 May 2005, Keele University, UK

315 Ver al respecto: FRASER, Nancy (2000) “Rethinking Recognition: Overcoming Displacement and Reification in Cultural Politics”, in: New Left Review 3 (May/June 2000): 107-120.

316 SEN, Amartya (2004) “Disability and Justice”, Speech held at 2004 World Bank International Disability Conference, “Disability and Inclusive Development: Sharing, Learning and Building Alliances”, Dec. 2004.

317 “so severe as to prevent people from being cooperating members of society in the usual sense”, John Rawls, “Political Liberalism”, p. 20. Citado por Iris Marion Young en “Structural Injustice and the Politics of Difference”.

318 “everyone has physical needs and psychological capacities with the normal range”, John Rawls, “A Theory of Justice”, p. 83. Citado por Iris Marion Young, op.cit.

319 Brian Barry (2001) “Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism”. Harvard University Press, 2001.

320 Para las líneas que siguen ver los trabajos de Nancy Fraser que figuran en nuestra bibliografía desde FRASER, Nancy (1995), “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Postsocialist' Age”, New Left Review, No. 212 (July/August 1995) pp. 68 - 93, reprinted in Fraser, “Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the "Postsocialist" Condition” (Routledge, 1997) a FRASER, Nancy & HONNETH, Axel (2003) “Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange”, London: Verso, 2003. Versión inglesa a cargo de Joel Golb, James Ingram y Christiane Wilke. - Versión alemana “Umverteilung oder Anerkennung? Eine politische-philosophische Controverse”, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2003, a cargo de Wolfgang Burckhardt.

321 “Could disabled people, for instance, be looked upon as a bivalent collective? We will argue that disability is a very complex phenomenon and disabled people too heterogeneous a category to be analytically defined as a collective on a social theoretical level (cf. Üstün et al., 2001, pp. 5, 9)”. Cf.. p. 343 in DANERMARK, Berth & GELLERSTEDT, Lotta Coniavitis (2004) “Social justice: redistribution and recognition -- a non-reductionist perspective on disability”. Disability & Society, June 2004, vol. 19, No. 4, p. 339-353.

322 FRASER, Nancy & HONNETH, Axel (2003) “Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange”, London: Verso, 2003. Versión inglesa a cargo de Joel Golb, James Ingram y Christiane Wilke. - Versión alemana “Umverteilung oder Anerkennung? Eine politische-philosophische Controverse”, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2003, a cargo de Wolfgang Burckhardt.

323 FRASER, Nancy & HONNETH, Axel (2003) “Redistribution or Recognition? Op.cit.

324 “A 1976 survey done by Dr. Einar Helander found that 10 per cent … people had some form of disability (Einar Helander “Prejudice and Dignity - An introduction to Community Based Rehabilitation”, UNDP New York NY USA 1999 p 20-22, quoted in Handicap International and the National Centre for Medical Rehabilitation, Bridging the Gap: Survey of Disabled Children & Adults 1999, p 29.) including reversible disabilities such as those caused by malnutrition”; citado en: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/ability/msme_lao_02_05.htm. - También puede encontrarse esta cita: “Global disability statistics are not easy to obtain, but most of the UN agencies use the rough calculation developed by Rehabilitation International (RI) in the 1970s that 10% of the world's population, i.e., currently 600,000,000 are born with or acquire a disability within their lifetimes”. - http://www.disabilityworld.org/06-08_03/children/unicef.shtml

325 DPI’s Commitment to an International Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons. April 2001/UK. http://www.dpi-japan.org/2actions/2-6/statement/010409e.htm

326 Elwan, Ann (1999) “Poverty and Disability: A Survey of the Literature”. Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 9932. Washington, DC: World Bank. Ver también: “Disability, poverty and development” (2000), UK - DFID - Department for International Development.

327 Ver Disability, poverty and development, UK DFID - Department for International Development, 2000. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/disability.pdf

328 Op cit. DPI’s Commitment to an International Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons.

329 Véase al respecto: 1) Stienstra, Deborah & Yutta Fricke, April D’Aubin, etc. (2002) Baseline Assessment: Inclusion and Disability in World Bank Activities. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Centre on Disability Studies. Pág. 76, y 2) http://www.who.int/features/2005/disability/en/

330 Sobre metas u objetivos de desarrollo del milenio, ver http://www.un.org/spanish/millenniumgoals/

331 “Unless disabled people are brought into the development mainstream, it will be impossible to cut poverty in half by 2015” Wolfensohn, James D. (2002) “Poor, Disabled and Shut Out”. En: Washington Post Journal. Tuesday, December 3, 2002; Page A25. The Washington Post Company.

332 Entre la gran cantidad de documentos generados en materia de discapacidad por los organismos multilaterales, podemos señalar los principales, que son los siguientes: La Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Impedido, el Programa de Acción Mundial para Personas con Discapacidad, las Normas Uniformes sobre la igualdad de oportunidades para las personas con discapacidad, la Convención Interamericana para la eliminación de todas las formas de Discriminación contra las Personas con Discapacidad, la Recomendación N° 168 y el Convenio N° 159 de la OIT, el informe "Repensando los servicios de salud desde la perspectiva de las personas con discapacidad", que hemos recopilado y alojado en el website que se indica: http://www.geocities.com/leydiscaperu/normas_internacionales.htm

333 Las obras de cada uno estos autores, obras a las que hemos tenido acceso para efectos de la presente investigación, se consignan en la bibliografía detallada que hemos preparado y que se encuentra al final de este documento.

334 BYRNES, Andrew (2000) “Disability rights and human rights: plunging into the 'mainstream'?”, paper prepared for "Let the World Know", Seminar on Human Rights and Disability, Almåsa Conference Centre (Stockholm, November 5-9, 2000).

335 HAHN, Harlan (1985) "Toward a Politics of Disability: Definitions, Disciplines, and Policies." Social Science Journal 22:4. Pp. 87-105.

336 A quien nos referiremos líneas más arriba, citando la fuente.

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