Facultad de letras y ciencias humanas departamento de humanidades



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337 “There is obviously a great deal of misunderstanding about disability. In large measure, this phenomenon may be natural because disability is a subject which many people would prefer not to think about. The presence of significant numbers of disabled people may arouse both an aesthetic aversion and a subconscious anxiety about bodily integrity that may be even more overpowering than the fear of death. … the predominant approach to disability seems to reflect a desire to keep the topic "out of sight and out of mind." By exploring the implications of the socio-political definition of disability, perhaps much of this neglect can be rectified”, Harlan Hahn, op. cit.

338 HUNT, Paul “A Critical Condition” in HUNT, Paul (ed.) (1966) “Stigma: The Experience of Disability”, London, Geoffrey Chapman, pp. 145-164.

339 BARNES, Colin (1997) “A Legacy of Oppression: A History of Disability in Western Culture”. CHAPTER 1 (In ‘Disability Studies: Past Present and Future’ edited by Len Barton and Mike Oliver (1997); Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 3 – 24).

340 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) “Pride Against Prejudice: Transforming Attitudes to Disability”. The Women's Press Ltd, London, 1991.

341 SEN, Amartya (2004) “Disability and Justice”, Speech held at 2004 World Bank International Disability Conference, “Disability and Inclusive Development: Sharing, Learning and Building Alliances”, Washington DC, Dec. 2004.

342 “People with physical or mental disability are not only among the most deprived human beings in the world, they are also, frequently enough, the most neglected”, Sen, op. cit.

343 “It is important to see why the treatment of disability and the understanding of the demands of justice to the disabled should be so central to ethics in general and theories of justice in particular”, Sen, op. cit..

344 “It is also, I would argue, useful to understand why the main schools of thought in theories of justice have tended to neglect this central issue, and how that neglect, in its turn, has tended to bias practical policies in the direction of inaction, and has even contributed to suppressing the sense of inadequacy that can reasonably accompany the failure to take a responsible view of the social obligation to the disabled”.

345 “… any theory of justice must address this issue, in order to qualify as an acceptable doctrine, and must identify what is owed by society to the people who happen to be significantly handicapped”, Sen, op. cit.

346 “There can, of course, be debates on precisely how the predicament of the disabled is to be overcome or ameliorated, and what institutions, rules and conventions would be right in dealing with this grave challenge. But overlooking or ignoring the plight of the disabled is not an option that an acceptable theory of justice can have. And yet, to a great extent, this is precisely what the theories of justice that have commanded loyalty over the centuries have tended to do, and this has profoundly affected the practical understanding of the nature of a good society and the demands of public order and social fairness. We must examine how this has happened, and why the impoverished perspectives that avoid addressing the claims of the disabled have come to occupy such central positions in political philosophy and welfare economics”, Sen, op. cit..

347 "rights, liberties, and opportunities, income and wealth, and a social basis of self-respect.". John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 60-5), citado por A. Sen..

348 Para más detalle al respecto, ver las secciones que sobre el “enfoque de capacidades” de Sen hemos escrito para analizar la 4ta categoría de la discapacidad entendida como pobreza y exclusión social.

349 “Even though the established theories of justice turn out to be inadequate in providing a satisfactory understanding of the handicap of disability, the entrenched hold of these traditional approaches not only affects discourses in philosophy, but also influences the reach of public discussion on this critically important subject”. Sen, op. cit.

350 “While economics, particularly defunct economics, must take some of the blame for the ills of the world, economics does not have a monopoly in being majestically defunct. Philosophy too - from very high-brow deliberations in abstract treatises to the immediate reaches of everyday reflections on right and wrong - exerts a remarkably powerful influence on the ideas that affect policies, institutions and practice”.

351 Sen, op. cit.

352 GOODLAD, Robina and RIDDELL, Sheila (2003) “Social justice and disabled people: principles and challenges”. Paper to ‘Disabled people and social justice’ Conference to mark European Year of Disabled People, Friday 14 November 2003, The Lighthouse, Mitchell Lane, Glasgow

353 Shakespeare, Tom (1994) “Cultural representation of disabled people: dustbins for disavowal?” Disability and Society 9, 3, pp 283 – 299.


354 GOODLAD, Robina and RIDDELL, Sheila (2003) “Social justice and disabled people: principles and challenges”. Paper to ‘Disabled people and social justice’ Conference to mark European Year of Disabled People, Friday 14 November 2003, The Lighthouse, Mitchell Lane, Glasgow

355 Los “disability arts movements” en el ámbito anglosajón denominan al movimiento de personas con discapacidad que no solo reunen a PCD que realizan obras de arte sino que además adoptan el modelo social y tienen una intencionalidad política para llamar la atención y generar cambios en la sociedad.

356 En esto y lo que sigue véase FRASER, Nancy (1995), “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Postsocialist' Age”; FRASER, Nancy (1998) “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition and Participation, y otros ensayos ya citados anteriormente.

357 SHAKESPEARE, Tom & WATSON, Nicholas (2002) “The Social Model of Disability: An outdated ideology?”, in: Journal ‘Research in Social Science and Disability’ Volume 2, pp. 9-28 (2002)

358 “Litmus test” es un término que viene del método químico, que usa un papel llamado “litmus”, para comprobar o verificar si un medio es ácido o alcalino. En política se llama así a la prueba que se hace mediante el uso de un factor simple que sólo tiene 2 resultados posibles: o positivo, o negativo.

359 UPIAS (1976). “Fundamental Principles of Disability”, (London: Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation - UPIAS).

360 MORRIS, Jenny (1991) “Pride against Prejudice: Transforming Attitudes to Disability”. The Women's Press Ltd, London, 1991.

361 CROW, L (1996) “Including all our lives”. In J. Morris (Ed.), Encounters with strangers: feminism and disability. London: Women’s Press.

362 CORKER, M. & FRENCH, S. (Eds.) (1999) “Disability discourse”, Buckingham: Open University Press.

363 THOMAS, C. (1998). “The body and society: impairment and disability”, paper presented at BSA Annual Conference: Making Sense of the Body, Edinburgh. - THOMAS, C. (1999). “Female forms: experiencing and understanding disability”. Buckingham: Open University Press.

364 Oliver, M. (1996). “Understanding disability: from theory to practice”. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

365 Oakley, A. (1972). “Sex, gender and society”. London: Maurice Temple Smith

366 Hood-Williams, J. (1996). “Goodbye to sex and gender”. Sociological Review 44, 1, 1-16

367 Corker, M. (1999). “Conflations, differences and foundations: the limits to 'accurate' theoretical representation of disabled people's experience?”. Disability & Society, 14, 5, pp.627 - 642

368 Véase el inciso e) del Preámbulo de dicha Convención que fue aprobado por la Resolución A/RES/61/106 de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas.

369 Said, E.W. (1994). Culture and imperialism. London: Vintage.

370 Kritzman, L.D. (Ed.) (1990). “Michel Foucault: politics, philosophy, culture”. New York: Routledge.

371 ZOLA, Irving Kenneth (1989) “Toward the necessary universalizing of a disability policy.” The Milbank Quarterly. Vol. 67. Supp. 2 Pt. 2 401-428. Reprinted in: The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2005 (pp. 1–27)

372 SUTHERLAND, Allan T. (1981) Disabled We Stand (London, Souvenir Press).

373 ZOLA, Irving Kenneth (1989) “Toward the necessary universalizing of a disability policy.” Op.cit

374 “What I argue in this article is that an exclusively special needs approach to disability is inevitably a short-run approach. What we need are more universal policies that recognize that the entire population is “at risk” for the concomitants of chronic illness and disability… without such a perspective we will further create and perpetuate a segregated, separate but unequal society—a society inappropriate to a larger and older “changing needs” population. It is, however, in the nature of this historical moment that such a change in perspective must take the form of a corrective—a reorientation of the general thinking about disability (Milio 1981). ZOLA, Irving Kenneth (1989) “Toward the necessary universalizing of a disability policy.” Op.cit

375 "A more radical approach is needed: we must demolish the false dividing line between 'normal' and 'disabled' [meaning impaired] and attack the whole concept of physical normality. We have to recognise that disablement [impairment] is not merely the physical state of a small minority of people. It is the normal condition of humanity." - SUTHERLAND, Allan, op. cit.

376 SHAKESPEARE, Tom (1994) “Cultural Representations of Disabled People: Dustbins for Disavowal” in “Disability and Society” No. 9, Vol. 3. pp. 283-301.

377 DAVIS, Lennard J. (1995). “Enforcing normalcy: disability, deafness and the body”. London: Verso.

378 DEL AGUILA, Luis Miguel (2001) “El concepto de discapacidad como problema. En pos de un término más universal, neutro e inclusivo”. En: La Voz Latinoamericana de las personas con discapacidad. Número 2 - Diciembre de 2001. Publicación en Internet: http://usuarios.discapnet.es/lavoz/LaVoz2/problema.htm

379 Ver la página 198. En particular revisar la sección: Amartya Sen: La discapacidad, el descuido y las demandas de justicia, que va de las páginas 197 a la 200.




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