Futuro. Autoevaluación There are

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Unidad 4. Quantity and Quality


There is / are / was / were / will be
There is / are se refiere al presente.

There was / were se refiere al pasado.

There will be se refiere al futuro.
There are a lot of cars in this street.

There were a lot of problems at school yesterday.

There won’t be many people here next week.

There isn’t a tomato in the fridge.

Were there any policemen in the stadium last week?
Countable and uncountable nouns
Los countable nouns tienen una forma de plural y se pueden contar.

Los uncountable nouns no tienen una forma de plural y no se pueden contar.

I have got the money in my pocket.

I have just bought a paper but I haven't read it yet.

This house is made of glass.

My friend Tom has just eaten two pears.

We had two cups of tea last night.

Plural de los nombres
La mayoría de los nombres forma el plural añadiendo una s

Otros nombres forman el plural añadiendo es o ies o "ves", dependiendo de su terminación.

Algunos nombres tienen un plural irregular, como es el caso de "men".

The plural of "ox" is .oxen.

The singular form of "wolves" is wolf.

The plural of "body" is bodies.

The singular form of "babies" is baby.

The plural of "proof" is proofs.

The singular form of "pianos" is piano.

The plural of "monarch" is monarchs.

The singular form of "thieves" is thief.

The plural of "tooth" is teeth.

The plural of "quiz" is quizzes.

Casos particulares: singular y plural
Palabras que sólo tienen una forma en plural como trousers

Palabras que terminan en -s y llevan el verbo en singular como news

Palabras que terminan en -s y que pueden ser singular y plural como series

Palabras que tienen una forma en singular pero que son plural como cattle

Palabras con significado diferente en singular y en plural como saving
My glasses are on the table.

No news is good news.

There were a lot of cattle in that market.

Joe's jeans are new.

The billiards is a game played by two people.
El género de los sustantivos
El masculino de "cow" es bull.

El femenino de "king" es queen.

El masculino de "actress" es actor.

El femenino de "tiger" es tigress.

The feminine of "bridegroom" is bride.

The masculine of “cow” is bull.

The feminine of "actor" is actress.

The masculine of "queen" is king.

The feminine of "prince" is princess.

El artículo

El artículo indeterminado se usa para mencionar algo por primera vez.

El artículo determinado se usa para mencionar algo por segunda vez.

No se usa artículo cuando se hace referencia a algo/alguien usado a nivel.

I am afraid of dogs.

He is learning Chinese, the lessons are very funny.

"What do you do?" "I am an electrician."

There is a church at the end of this street.

"What time do you go to bed?"

Those students usually play rugby at the weekends.

The Bransons live in this street.

I get up at eight o'clock every morning.

There is an orange in the fridge.

The girls were playing with a ball. The ball was red and blue.

Some, Any y compuestos
Some se utiliza con nombres incontables y con contables en plural en oraciones afirmativas.

Any se utiliza con nombres incontables y con contables en plural en oraciones negativas.

Someone, somebody, something y somewhere se emplean en oraciones afirmativas.

Anyone, anybody, anything y anywhere se emplean en oraciones negativas e interrogativas.
We can't find our mum's glasses anywhere.

Somebody is waiting for you.

I'd like to buy some tomatoes.

You can take any train to go to London.

"Has your brother got any money?" "Yes, he's got some”.

They're looking for somewhere to live.

"Would you like some biscuits?" "Yes, please."

If you have any problems, please call me.

There isn't anybody at home.

I can't see a grammar book anywhere.
No, none, no one, nobody, nothing, nowhere
Usamos nothing, none, nobody con un verbo en afirmativa.
I couldn't come back home on time because there was no bus

None of the shops are going to open today.

I saw nobody at the party.

No-one is visiting us today.

We have got nowhere / haven’t got anywhere to live. We have to keep on looking for a place to live.

A lot of, lots of, much, many, too much, too many, a little, little, a few, few
Se usa a lot of y lots of con nombres incontables y con contables en plural en oraciones afirmativas.

Se usa much con nombres incontables y many con nombres contables en plural en oraciones negativas e interrogativas.

Se usa too much con nombres incontables y too many con nombres contables en plural.

Se usa a little con nombres incontables.

Se usa a few y few con nombres contables en plural.


There are a lot of books in the school library.

There isn't much light in this flat.

"Don't worry about the next exam; you've a little time to revise."

I'm afraid he's got too many tests to check for tomorrow.

We've lived in this flat for many years.

All (of), most (of), each, every, both (of), neither (of)
Se usa all delante de nombres y pronombres.

Se usa most of delante de nombres precedidos o no por adjetivos, y seguido por of + determinante o un pronombre personal.

Se usa every e each delante de nombres contables en singular.

Se usa both delante de un nombre contable en plural y neither delante de nombres contables en singular.

All the carrots are on the kitchen table.

I called my team mates but most of them away.

Each town has its traditions.

We go shopping every day

Both Sheila and Pam live on the second floor of an old building.

Complex clauses: Clauses of contrast
Despite va seguido por gerundio.

Although va seguido por sujeto + verbo.

In spite of va seguido por adjetivo + nombre que siguen a un determinante


Melissa can't speak Japanese in spite of practising every day.

Mr Brown couldn't sleep although he hadn’t had any coffee.

Even though Sam likes football very much, he hardly ever goes to the stadium.

Lewis has visited eight countries so far despite being very young.

In spite of the good weather, we aren't going to climb that mountain tomorrow.

Although they are not rich, they always go on holidays.

c) In spite of not being rich, they always go on holidays.

Despite sleeping very well, he is a bit tired today.

a) Though he has slept very well, he is a bit tired today.

Although it was raining, we played football in the park

c) In spite of the rain, we played football in the park.

Louise rescued the old man although she could not swim very well.

b) Despite not swimming very well, Louise rescued the old man.

Tom bought a computer despite not knowing anything about computers.

b) Although Tom didn't know anything about computers, he bought one.
Formación de palabras: Negative prefixes
Al añadir prefijos a los adjetivos y sustantivos el significado cambia / permanece igual. [cambia]
a) dishonest / disappearance

b) impolite

c) insecurity / inconceivable

d) unhappiness / unbelief

e) irresponsibility

f) non-smoker

g) illegible

h) disappearance / dishonest

i) inconceivable / insecurity

j) unbelief / unhappiness

Contenidos léxicos, áreas temáticas: Tiendas, productos y dinero
a) baker's panadería

b) chemist's farmacia

c) fish pescado

d) soft drink refresco

e) butcher's carnicería

f) optician's óptico

g) spirits licores

h) seafood marisco

i) fishmonger's pescadería

j) bookshop librería

Vocabulario relacionado con el dinero
a) invest invertir

b) budget presupuesto

c) waste derrochar

d) earnings ingresos

e) borrow tomar prestado

f) coin moneda

g) owe deber

h) receipt recibo

i) banknote billete

j) lend prestar

Leer y escribir: Comprensión de textos escritos
Brenda had half a million euros to spend in the game.

The first thing Dan did after knowing about the lottery was leave his job.

The competition started after they bought the car.

Brenda wants to go to Australia because she likes tennis very much.

Leer y escribir: Composición de textos escritos
Linkers of contrast
My father will never admit it, but he likes soap operas.

She was very hungry. However / Nevertheless she didn't have anything to eat.

On the one hand, I eat a lot. On the other hand, I don't get fat.

His last record is long but interesting.

They sometimes watch a football match on TV. However, they don't like it.
A for and against essay
It is true that money and fame give you a lot of good and interesting things which can make your life easier. However, there are also some disadvantages to being in the public eye, so we must look at both sides of the question.

On the one hand, if you are rich and famous, you can do a lot of things that the people who don’t have so much money can't do: you can eat in the best restaurants whenever you wish, you can live in big houses or you can travel to the most important cities all over the world. What's more, there will be a lot of people who will help you in everything you need.
On the other hand, money and fame can bring you problems. For example, you could feel uncomfortable and unsafe in a place if you don't have your bodyguard to protect you from those fans and obsessed people who want to talk to you or ask you an autograph. In addition, you have to be very careful with the things you do, the places you go to or the people you go out with because some journalists will want to take a photo of you and know things about your private life.
In short, being rich and famous can have very positive aspects. However, I think that it has a lot of serious and important disadvantages. For that reason, I wouldn't like to have too much money and be famous.

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