Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty



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The World Blind Union Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty

More Praise for
The World Blind Union Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty

“This Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty, written by world-renowned copyright scholars, is essential for anyone who aims to transpose, interpret, and apply the norms in the Treaty in an effective manner, finally giving visually impaired people real access to knowledge and culture.”



Lucie Guibault
Institute for Information Law
University of Amsterdam

“This book provides a timely, clear, and insightful guide to a complex and novel legal subject with immense practical significance. A must-read for anybody interested in making accessible versions of printed material available to disabled people.”



Anna Lawson
Professor of Law and Director of the
Centre for Disability Studies

University of Leeds

The World Blind Union Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty

Facilitating Access to Books for


Print-Disabled Individuals

Laurence R. Helfer

Molly K. Land

Ruth L. Okediji

Jerome H. Reichman


The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access
to Published Works for Persons Who Are
Blind, Visually Impaired, or
Otherwise Print Disabled

Opened for Signature: June 27, 2013

States Parties: 25 as of November 30, 2016

Entry into Force: September 30, 2016



Contents

Acknowledgments 6

Foreword 7

Executive Summary 10

Introduction 15

Guiding Principles for the Marrakesh Treaty 21

1.1. The Marrakesh Treaty at the Crossroads of Human Rights and Intellectual Property 22

1.1.1. The International Human Rights Regime 22

1.1.2. The International Intellectual Property Regime 25

1.1.3. Conflict or Coexistence between the Regimes? 27

1.1.4. Using Copyright Tools to Achieve Human Rights Ends 31

1.2. Interpretive Principles for the Marrakesh Treaty 35

1.2.1. Emphasize Object and Purpose 36

1.2.2. Adapt the Marrakesh Treaty to Changing Conditions 40

1.2.3. Promote Consistency with the CRPD 42

1.2.3.1. Background to the CRPD 42

1.2.3.2. Central Principles of the CRPD 44

1.2.3.3. Consultations with Stakeholders 47

The Legal and Policy Choices in the Marrakesh Treaty 50

2.1. Copyrighted Works Covered by the Marrakesh Treaty 50

2.2. Accessible Format Copies 53

2.3. Authorized Entities 56

2.3.1. Introduction and Overview 56

2.3.2. Types of Authorized Entities 59

2.3.2.1. Entities Providing Services to Beneficiaries 60

2.3.2.2. Government Recognized Entities 63

2.3.3. The Practices of Authorized Entities 64

2.4. Beneficiary Persons 66

2.4.1. Introduction and Overview 66

2.4.2. Categories of Beneficiary Persons 68

2.4.2.1. Blindness 69

2.4.2.2. Visual Impairment or Perceptual Disability 70

2.4.2.3. Physical Reading Disability 73

2.4.3. Defining Beneficiary Persons in Implementing Legislation 73

2.5. Exceptions and Limitations to Copyright in National Law 77

2.5.1. Introduction and Overview 77

2.5.2. Obligations of Article 4(1) 81

2.5.2.1. Mandatory Exceptions and Limitations 81

2.5.2.2. Non-mandatory Exceptions and Limitations 84

2.5.3. Modes of Implementing Article 4(1) 84

2.5.3.1. Article 4(2)—The Safe Harbor Option 84

2.5.3.1.1. The Safe Harbor for Authorized Entities 85

2.5.3.1.2. The Safe Harbor for Beneficiary Persons 87

2.5.3.1.3. Implications of the Safe Harbor Options 87

2.5.3.2. Article 4(3)—The Sui Generis Option 88

2.5.4. Exceptions and Limitations for the Translation of Copyrighted Works 89

2.5.5. The Commercial Availability Option 90

2.5.6. The Remuneration Option 93

2.6. Cross-Border Exchange and Importation of Accessible Format Copies 95

2.6.1. Introduction and Overview 95

2.6.2. Substantive Obligations of Articles 5 and 6 101

2.6.2.1. Article 5—Export of Accessible Format Copies 101

2.6.2.2. Article 6—Import of Accessible Format Copies 104

2.6.3. Modes of Implementation of Articles 5 and 6 104

2.6.3.1. Article 5(2)—The Safe Harbor Option 105

2.6.3.2. Article 5(3)—The Sui Generis Option 106

2.6.4. Exhaustion of Rights 109

2.6.5. Implementation of Article 6 109

2.6.6. Cross-Border Issues Not Addressed in the Marrakesh Treaty 111

2.7. Technological Protection Measures 112

2.7.1. Introduction and Overview 112

2.7.2. Analysis 115

2.8. the Three-Step Test 120

2.8.1. Policy Rationales of the Three-Step Test 121

2.8.2. The Three-Step Test and Exceptions and Limitations for the Blind 123

2.8.3. Applying the Three-Step Test to the Marrakesh Treaty 125

2.8.4. The Three-Step Test and International Human Rights Law 130

Putting the Marrakesh Treaty into Practice in National Law 132

3.1. Create Legal Remedies 133

3.2. Empower National Institutions 136

3.2.1. Human Rights Institutions 136

3.2.2. Intellectual Property Institutions 139

3.2.3. Linking to the Marrakesh Treaty Assembly 140

3.3. Undertake Enforcement Activities 141

3.3.1. Monitor Rights 141

3.3.2. Enforce Legal Remedies 143

3.3.3. Create a National Plan of Action 144

3.3.4. Engage in Training and Outreach 146

3.4. Engage in National Reporting 147

3.4.1. UN Treaty Bodies 147

3.4.2. UN Charter Bodies 151

3.4.3. UN Special Procedures 152

Conclusion 153


Appendices



1: World Intellectual Property Organization, Extraordinary General Assembly: A Decision Text (December 18, 2012)

2: Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (adopted on June 27, 2013, entered into force on September 30, 2016)

3: Signatories and Contracting Parties to the Marrakesh Treaty

4: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol (adopted on December 13, 2006, entered into force on May 3, 2008)

5: Signatories and Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

6: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Paris Text, as last amended on September 28, 1979)



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