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THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON WOMEN

RECONSIDERED: A STUDY OF THE WOMEN’S EDUCATION PROJECT

IN UPPER VOLTA

A Thesis

Presented to the Faculty

of the


Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy

by


Brenda Gael McSweeney

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

October 1979

© Brenda Gael McSweeney

1979


VITA
BRENDA GAEL MCSWEENEY
Place of Birth Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Date of Birth 23 July 1943
Education FLETCHER SCHOOL OF LAW AND DIPLOMACY,

Medford, Massachusetts


1965-1967; Ph.D., 1979; M.A.L.D. (Master of Arts

1969-1971 in Law and Diplomacy), 1970; M.A.,

1966; concentration in the field of development economics; Fletcher fellowship.


    1. FULBRIGHT SCHOLAR, Paris, France



Purpose of grant: study and research in the area of international develop-
ment assistance; affiliated with the Institute of Political Science (Univer-sity of Paris).
Spring 1968 Conducted field research in Upper Volta

Summer 1969 on the topic of aid and development.


1961-1963; SMITH COLLEGE, Northampton, Massachu-

1964-1965 setts.


Bachelor of Arts in history, minor in French.


    1. UNIVERSITY OF GENEVA, Geneva, Switzer-land.

Enrolled in the Faculty of Economic and


Social Sciences; also attended courses

at the Graduate Institute of International Studies and the Institute of European Studies.


Professional UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME,

Experience Ouagadougou, Upper Volta
Oct. 1977 - Special leave for research in the area

Oct. 1979 of women and development.


Apr. 1974 - Assistant Resident Representative.

Sept. 1977


2
Jan. 1972-Mar. ‘74 Programme Officer.


Spring-Fall 1971 HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts


Research Associate to Dr. Edward E. Leamer, Assistant Professor of Econometrics and Quantitative Methods.
Spring 1971 AFRICAN-AMERICAN LABOUR CENTRE, New

York, New York


Consultant.
1970-1971 FLETCHER SCHOOL OF LAW AND DIPLOMACY, Medford, Massachusetts
Research Aide to Dr. D. Humphrey,

William L. Clayton Professor of International

Economic Affairs.
Summer 1970 Research Associate to Dr. William Sprague Barnes, American Delegate to the Inter-American Juridical Committee of the Organization of American States.
Summer 1967 STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY,

New York, New York


Economic Analyst in the International Economics Division.


    1. TUFTS UNIVERSITY, Medford Massachustts

Teaching Assistant in the Department of Economics.


1966-1967 FLETCHER SCHOOL OF LAW AND DIPLOMACY,

Medford, Massachusetts


Research Assistant to Dr. Ruhl J. Bartlett, Professor of Diplomatic History.
Summer 1966 EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT,

Washington, D.C.


Economist in the Office of the Special Representative to the President for Trade Negotiations.
Summer 1965 FERMETURE ECLAIR S.A., Rouen, France

3
AIESEC (Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales) Executive Traineeship.


Missions ADVISOR, UNDP DELEGAION TO THE WORLD

June-July 1975 CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S YEAR, Mexico City, Mexico


Participated on behalf of the UNDP’s Regional Bureau for Africa in the AAS/ UNDP/UNITAR/CONACYT Seminar on Women in Development (Workshop on Food Produc- tion and the Introduction of Small-Scale Technologies into Rural Life).
Assisted on behalf of the UNDP at the deliberations of the Conference’s First (World Plan of Action) Committee.
Sept.-Oct. 1977 UNDP DELEGATION TO THE REGIONAL CON-FERENCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NA-TIONAL, REGIONAL AND WORLD PLANS OF ACTION FOR THE INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT, Nouakchott, Mauritania.
Represented UNDP at the conference pro- ceedings, the meeting of representatives of the United Nations Family, and the meeting of representatives of the UN Economic Commission for Africa’s Training and Research Centre for Women donor agencies.
Mar.-Apr. 1978 UNDP DELEGATION TO THE FIRST MEETING OF THE INTER-AGENCY WORKING GROUP ON THE INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Alternate UNDP delegate; rapporteur.

Papers, “African Women in Rural Development:

Publications The Role of Women in Development in

Upper Volta," (with Scholastique Kompaoré), paper presented at the Seminar on Women in Rural Development in Africa: Implications for Donor Organizations, sponsored by the Overseas Liaison Committee of the American Council on Education, Washington, D.C., April 1976.

4
“An Approach to Collecting and Examining Data on Rural Women’s Time Use and Some Tentative Findings: The case of Upper Volta, “paper presented for the seminar on Rural Women and the Sexual Division of Labor, organized by the Population Council, New York, New York, March 1979.
“Collection and Analysis of Data on Rural Women’s Time Use,” article in Studies in Family Planning 10, no. 11, special issue on the topic of learning about rural women (November 1979).
The Impact of Intermediate Technology on the Integration of Women in the Development Process (with Scholastique Kompaoré), forthcoming report being prepared for the United States Agency for International Development.

ABSTRACT
(Doctoral dissertation, Brenda Gael McSweeney)

The focus of this study is a development effort

which was unique in Africa, the ten-year Upper Volta/ UNESCO/UNDP Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls

to Education. This experimental project aimed at achiev-

ing more equitable school enrollments for girls, at pro-

viding educational opportunities for women, and at strength-ening their contribution to the country’s socioeconomic development. Results in one of the Project’s three pilot

zones are analyzed in order to assess the impact of de- velopment on women, and also on men, when women’s roles and needs are built into the design of a development pro-

gram. The major components of the Women’s Education Pro-ject are evaluated and a comparison made of change in tar-

get villages and neighboring control villages.

A school of thought associated with such scholars of development as Ester Boserup and Irene Tinker posits that

in the majority of cases development has had a negative

impact on women in comparison to its effect on men. This study reflects this concern about the consequences of development for women, yet takes a somewhat different approach. The principal hypothesis is that if a develop-

ment project is judiciously formulated and its activities carefully selected, women as well as men can benefit from development. In order to test this proposition, the re-

sults of the Women’s Education Project have been

2

investigated within the socioeconomic areas of a set of in-



dicators formulated by the African Training and Research

Centre for Women (ATRCW) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. The indicators measure women’s par-ticipation in development as well as their access to its

means and rewards. The study concentrates on findings in

two of the ATRCW’s six indicator areas, employment and ed-ucation, with a summary review in the areas of health/ma-

ternity and rural technologies. An assessment is made of

the appropriateness of the indicators from the point of

view of the villagers, to determine whether the indicator

areas correspond to the revealed aspirations and priorities

of rural populations in Upper Volta. An examination is

also made of the capacity of the indicators themselves to

capture the subject areas, and expansions of the indicators

are suggested.


Launched in 1967, the Upper Volta Women’s Education

Project personnel had identified women’s overwhelming work-

loads, coupled with poor hygienic conditions and low stan-

dards of living, as obstacles to women’s eventual parti-

cipation in new educational opportunities and income-

generating activities. Technologies such as mechanical grain

mills, carts, and readily accessible water wells were in-

troduced, in order that women might allocate a portion of

the time thus saved to educational activities such as

learning modern agricultural methods, health and civic

education, professional training, and to lucrative

activities such as collective fields. Dynamic village

3

women or animatrices and traditional midwives were chosen



by the villagers themselves to attend special courses to

reinforce their roles as leaders in change.

To permit comparison of the rapidity of change in target villages and control villages, and to assess the

differential impact of the Project in target villages,

an eighteen-month study was conducted in eight of the

eighty-three villages reached by the Project in 1976 and

in four control villages in the three pilot zones. Data

was generated by a combination of overview and intensive

survey techniques, including questionnaires, time budgets prepared by direct observation, less structured all-village interviews, and individual interviews with women leaders.

One methodological finding was that time budgets prepared

by direct observation captured about twice as much informa-

tion on women’s work as did the recall technique.

In the socioeconomic area of employment, the ATRCW’s proposed informal sector indicators are pertinent to 98.6

percent of the active Voltaic population. They include

calculations of women’s participation in a schedule of

work classified under production/supply/distribution and household/community factors. Exploration with field data suggested the need for a more comprehensive schedule of

activities; the framework was therefore revised to include

cash crops, crafts and other professions, and measurements

of time for personal needs and of free time. Data from a

small sample of time budgets prepared by direct observation

of women and their husbands in the Kongoussi region, the

4

north-central zone of the Project, indicated that women



undertake fifty-six percent of total work, which includes

forty-nine percent of agricultural production, with only

some 1.3 hours of free time per day. Dramatic differences

were found between workloads of girls and boys, with girls averaging twice as much work as boys from ages seven to

fifteen. Even the older women undertake important work-

loads. Women in polygynous households were found to have somewhat more free time available.

Given substantial labor inputs of girls and women

which inhibit women’s participation in educational activi-

ties and at the same time the women’s willingness to have

their young female helpers attend school, the accent which

the Project personnel placed on the introduction of work-

load-lightening technologies is understandable. However,

the data revealed the technologies, rather than creating

free time, led to activities which otherwise would have

been foregone. For example, mill availability permitted

additional meals, the preparation of which would have been forfeited owing to fatigue, and wells permitted water fil-

tering which otherwise would have been neglected.

In the area of non-formal education, differences in

behavior and attitudes toward educational activities

emerged from the comparison of a target and a control

village in the Kongoussi zone of the Project. Analysis

showed that the Project was responsible for women’s sub-

stantially greater participation in educational activities

in the target villages, as measured by the time allocated

5

to the following activities: attendance at functional



literacy classes, listening to the Project-sponsored

radio broadcasts, and implementation of health education

advice through water filtering. Time pressures and dis-

tance to courses were found to be ongoing obstacles to

women’s participation. Health education was most fre-

quently cited as the Project’s most beneficial activity.

However, the hypothesis that significant differences would

exist between Project and control villages with regard

to sending of children to school, and particularly girls,

was not upheld.

Content analysis of the less structured interviews

with populations of the four survey villages in the Kon-

goussi zone, and also with women leaders in the Project

villages, concerning change in their villages since in-

dependence revealed an emphasis on the theme of economic conditions. This area, along with the issue of income-

generating activities, is not treated per se by the ATRCW’s indicators. Social, political, and attitudinal changes

were perceived by the women leaders and populations of four villages to have been primarily favourable, while economic conditions was the only category in which changes were de-

clared to have been overwhelmingly unfavorable. Women made

the majority of these statements on negative changes in

economic conditions during the all-village interviews, and

virtually all of the statements made by women leaders on

this subject were on unfavorable changes. The findings

suggest the appropriateness of a disaggregation of the

6

negative impact thesis as follows: while development



seems to have had an especially negative impact on women in

the economic sphere, it has been accompanied by positive

changes for all members of the community in socio-political conditions. Such a disaggregation leads to the policy con-

clusion that future efforts should give additional atten-

tion to the economic side of the equation, particularly in

response to women’s needs.


International and national assessments, and the views

of the villagers themselves, have shown that the Upper Volta/UNESCO/UNDP Women’s Education Project has made a difference in the lives of the villagers reached. The

Women’s Education Project has involved women in the cul-

tivation of cash crops and contributed to reducing the

gap in agricultural training, whereas the baseline socio-

logical studies for the Project had shown that agricultural extension programs were addressed primarily to men. The introduction of technology, lauded by the users as energy

and time saving, involved in part a redistribution of por-

tions of women’s traditional workloads to men, which helped

to redress the imbalance in the sexual division of labor.

Efforts to heighten the impact of the Women’s Education

Project in the time-saving and income-generating areas

have been intensified. Lightening of food processing and

various portage tasks not only for women but also for girls

should influence their access to training and school, and achievement once enrolled. In summary, the Upper Volta/ UNESCO/UNDP Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls

7

to Education has served as a catalyst for change in target



villages and made progress in the crucial areas of employ-

ment and education, which the Boserup-Tinker school and the African Training and Research Centre for Women emphasized

as areas in which development has usually left women be-

hind. As stated by the head of the women’s group in one

village, a spokesperson for those most concerned, “Educa-

tion is on the right track.”


TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ……………………………………. vi

LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………… vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………… x
PART ONE

INTRODUCTION

Chapter

I. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY……………………………….. 1


The Issue of the impact of Development

on Women ………………………………………………… 4

Overview of the Background and Aims of

the Upper Volta Project for Equal

Access of Women and Girls to

Education ………………………………………………. 8

Analytic Framework : The African Training


and Research Center for Women’s
Socioeconomic Indicators of the
Participation of Women in Development
and Their Access to the Means and
Rewards of Development …………………………. 11

Method of Approach ………………………………….. 13


II. THE UPPER VOLTA WOMEN’S EDUCATION PROJECT…18

Government Policies Toward Women and

Development….………………………………..……….. 19

Justification and Objectives of the

Women’s Education Project…………………….. 25

Initial Project Implementation………………… 28

Presentation and Assessment of

Activities in the Kongoussi Zone…………………… 32

Extension of the Project and Structural

Changes…………………………………………… 58


iii
III.DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY ……………….. 62

Data Collection Strategy ……………………………. 64

Research Program and Data Collection

Instruments………………………………………………. 66

Women’s Activities : Questionnaire

(Interview)Versus Time Budget

(Direct Observation) ………………………………… 76

Less Structured Interview Methodology…………. 81

Factors Influencing Interpretation of

Survey Results ……………………………..………… 83


PART TWO

ANALYSIS OF THE WOMEN’S EDUCAITON PROJECT IN THE

SOCIOECONOMIC AREAS OF THE AFRICAN TRAINING AND RESEARCH

CENTRE FOR WOMEN’S INDICATORS

IV. EMPLOYMENT………………………………………………… 94

Overview of the Problem ………….…………………… 96

Employment Indicators of the African

Training and Research Center for

Women …………………………………………………… 101

Proposed Revised Framework for the

Examination of the Allocation of

Rural Women’s Time ………………………………… 110

Findings and Directions of Further

Analysis……………………………………………………… 112


V. EDUCATION ……………………………………………. 139

Women and Education : The Phenomenon …... 140

Education and Training Indicators of

the African Training and Research

Center for Women……………………………………… 143

Examination of Education Sector Data

In Rural Upper Volta ……………………………… 151

Attitudes and Behavior Towards Education :

Explanatory Factors ………………………………. 175

Finding and Implications for Planners ……… 182


VI. PRECIS OF OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATOR

AREAS……………………………….………………………… 189

Health and Maternity ………………………….. 190

Rural Technologies …………………………….. 196

Law ……………………………….…………………….. 201

Participation in Decision-Making……….. 203


iv

PART THREE

CONCLUSIONS
VII. EXPRESSED CONCERNS OF VOLTAIC RURAL
POPULATIONS AS THEY RELATE TO WOMEN’S
EDUCATION PROJECT ACTIVITIES, ATRCW
INDICATORS AREAS, AND THE IMPACT OF
DEVELOPMENT ON WOMEN…………………………… 206

Review of Hypothesis Testing in the

Socioeconomic Areas of the African

Training and Research Centre for

Women’s Indicators…………………………………….. 208

Approach to the Analysis of the Less

Structured Interviews………………………………… 212

Content Analysis of Interviews with

Women Leaders …………………………………………… 215

Analysis of the Responses of Populations

in Four Villages ……………………………………… 229

Findings and Their Relevance for the

Set of Indicaors and for the Theory

of the Negative Impact of Development

on Women …………………………………………………… 242
VIII. THE WOMEN’S EDUCATION PROJECT : CATALYST
FOR CHANGE ……………………………..…………………… 254

International Appraisals………..…………………… 255

National Assessments ……………….………………… 256

Views from the Villages …………..………………… 258

Policy and Program Implications………………… 261
APPENDIX I RESEARCH SITE…………….………………… 267

APPENDIX II RESEARCH MATERIALS …………..………… 274

APPENDIX III RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION ……………… 311

SOURCES CONSULTED ………………………………..…………… 315

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………..……………… 329

v
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


1. Comparison of Time Allocated by Voltaics (Kongoussi Zone) by Sex to Various
Types of Activities in the First Four-
teen Waking Hours of the Day…………………… 120


  1. Comparison of Aggregated Time Alloca-

tions of Voltaics (Kongoussi Zone) by
Sex in the First Fourteen Waking Hours
of the Day………………………………………………… 121

3. Rank Ordering of Themes Expressed by


Women Leaders in Response to the
Interview Question Concerning Change……… 217
4. Location of the Three Pilot Zones of
the Women’s Education Project in the
Republic of Upper Volta…………………………… 268

vi


LIST OF TABLES
1. Primary School Enrollments in the Kongoussi
Zone in 1968………………………………………..…..….. 36
2. Sample Time Budget, Upper Volta Women
and Development Study (1976-1978) …………….. 73
3. Comparison Between Questionnaire and
Time-Budget Results Concerning the
Activities of Kalira, a Traditional
Midwife from the Village of Konkuyan
in the Pô Zone, on 25 October 1978…………….. 78
4. Estimates of the Participation of Women
in Traditional Rural and Early
Modernizing Africa………………………….…..…..…. 109
5. Rural Activities (Kongoussi Zone): Indices
of Femaleness …………………………………………….. 115
6. Rural Activities (Kongoussi Zone): Com-
parison of Time Allocations by Sex…………….. 116
7. Comparison of Phasing into Workloads
(Kongoussi Zone) by Sex ……………………………. 129
8. Education at the First Level in Upper
Volta ………………………………………………………… 143

9. Education at the Second Level in Upper


Volta …………………………………………………………. 145
10. Education at the Third Level in Upper
Volta………………………………………………………….. 146
11. Third Level Students by Field of Study
in Upper Volta……………………………………………. 147
12. Status of the Rural Education Program in
Upper Volta Following a Decade of
Implementation…………………………………………… 149

vii



  1. Functional Literacy : Reasons for Which Women

Do not Attend Courses(Project Villages) or Are Not

Interested in Attending (Control Village) ……………… 162


14. Radio Programs : Reasons for Not
Listening to “The Woman Is the
Home” ……………………………………………………… 169
15. Factors Affecting Time Use and Behavior…… 177
16. Expression of Interest by Women of
the Kongoussi Zone in Technologies
Not Currently at Their Disposal……………. 199
17. Classification by Theme of Statements
by Women Leaders on Favorable and
Unfavorable Changes ………………………………… 218
18. Statements by Women Leaders on Per-
ceptions of Changes in Women and
Men and in Male/Female Interactions……….. 221
19. Statements by Women Leaders on Health………… 224
20. Statements by Women Leaders on Economic
Conditions………………………………………………… 226
21. Statement by Women Leaders on Political
Conditions ……………………………………………….. 226
22. Classification by Theme of Statements on
Change by the Populations of Four

Villages……………………………………………………. 230


23. Rank Ordering of Themes Expressed by
Populations in Four Villages …………………. 231
24. “Negativeness” of Statements by Popula-
tions of Four Villages……………………………… 233
25. Project-Related Statements by Popula-
tions of Four Villages……………………………… 235
26. Populations of Four Villages on the
Theme of Economic Conditions…………………… 239
27. Data Sheet on Comparative Access of
Women to the Means and Rewards of
Development: Economic Conditions …………… 248
viii

28. Rank Ordering by Theme of Total State-


ments Made by the Populations of Four
Villages and Women Leaders in the
Kongoussi Zone ……………………….…………….. 251
29. Socioeconomic Profile of the Republic of
Upper Volta ……………………………..……..…….. 269
30. Socioeconomic Profile of the Kongoussi
Zone of the Women’s Education Project….. 271
31. Socioeconomic Profile of the Village
of Zimtenga ……………………………..……..…….. 272
32. Socioeconomic Profile of the Village
of Bayend-Foulgo …………………..……..……..… 273

ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Initial discussions were held at the Flecther School

of Law and Diplomacy on my proposed doctoral research with

Dr. Arpad von Lazar, my director, and Dr. Robert L. West, my second reader, in 1974. They have contributed gen-

erously of their time and ideas in all phases of the study.

I am enormously indebted to them for their assistance.

My work has also benefited from the valuable suggestions of Dr. Rosemarie S. Rogers of the Fletcher School.

Authorization to undertake my research project on

women in development in Upper Volta, based on the Upper Volta/UNESCO/UNDP Project for Equal Access for Women and Girls to Education, was accorded in early 1976 by Prof.

Ali Lankoande, Minister of National Education and Culture.

I owe to him special thanks for his sustained interest and encouragement both to undertake the project and to carry

it through to completion. His dedication to educational

reform and innovation in approaches to development have

been a constant inspiration.

Scholastique Kompaore supported my interest in con-

ducting research in this area, and was instrumental in my

decision to focus my investigation on the aforementioned

Women’s Education Project of which she was the National Coordinator. Her daily collaboration in research and pro-

grams aimed at women’s needs has been, in a word, invalu-

able; her devotion to the goal of the promotion of women

is boundless, and the support of her husband, Julien, and


x

her family for this endeavor, is unmatched in my experience.



Her friendship has extended far beyond the professional

realm. I have been honored to have been absorbed into the Tapsoba clan by her parents, who constructed for me a small

house in their courtyard in Pô, one of the zones of the

Women’s Education Project, to provide me with a home in the largest sense of the word.

Marcel Poussi, as Director of the Voltaic Scientific

Research Center (CVRS), reviewed my initial research design

and contributed to sorting out the issues of data collec-

tion in the Voltaic context. His guidance and moral sup-

port have been immeasurable. The advice of Sidiki Coulibaly

of CVRS during the coding phase of the study is also much appreciated.

I am grateful to the United Nations Development Pro-

gramme (UNDP) for authorization of my special leave to

undertake this study, and additionally for financial

support during my field research. For his personal in-

terest in the study, I am indebted to Bradford Morse, UN

Under Secretary-General and Administrator of UNDP, who throughout his career has supported the notion of popular participation in development. I thank Michel Doo Kinguė, Assistant Administrator and Director, Regional Bureau for

Africa; Eugene Youkel, Director of Personnel; and their

colleagues for their encouragement of this undertaking.

I also appreciate the endorsement of my research received from Jens Hogel, Resident Representative of the UNDP in

Upper Volta, and the general support of the UN family.

xi

I feel privileged to have been able to participate



parallel to my dissertation work in a separate Voltaic

Government project directed by Scholastique Kompaoré to

study the impact of intermediate technologies on the inte-

gration of women in the development process. This project

was financed with the assistance of the United States

Agency for International Development (USAID). Aime Meliman

Da, Cabinet Director of the Ministry of National Education

and Culture, was most helpful. U.S. Department of State personnel, and in particular John Hoskins, Director of

USAID in Ouagadougou, never ceased to facilitate the pro-

gress of this project. I am grateful to Arvonne Frazer,

Coordinator of USAID’s Office Women in Development, for

her interest both in my own research project and that under-

taken in collaboration with Scholastique Kompaoré.

For assistance in the research for both studies, I

wish to acknowledge in particular Mariam Konate and Gabriel Tamini of the Women’s Education Project, who gave to these undertakings of their time and effort above and beyond the

call of duty. Gratitude is also owed to Gérard Adouabou,

Gabriel Ouédraogo, Monique Kaboré, Christine Ouedraogo,

Brother Jean–Baptiste Bunkungu, Felix Kalmogho, Eugenie Kassalom, Jean Zigani, Julienne Napon, and the other

staff members of the Women’s Education Project. It was

through the effort and talents of these individuals,

coupled with those of the enumerators who are to be con-gratulated on their endurance and results, that rapport

with the village authorities and populations never waned.


xii
Recognition is due to the villagers for their understanding

and collaboration in our joint undertaking, and particularly

to those encompassed in the sample, and to the women leaders

for the additional insights they shared in the course of

extensive interviews. Special thanks go to all of those

who made my time in the villages inforgettable, and es-

pecially to my “husband” the rain chief of the village of

Tôrem in the Pô zone; my “friend” the “Radio” (Minister of Communications) of the Women’s Group of Zoagha; my “cowife” from the Kongoussi zone, Mrs. Tidébamba, Head of the

Women’s Group of Douré; the traditional midwife from the

village of Fabédougou, Adama Camara, who reserved for me

her “leftovers”; and the women’s minstrel, Maimouna, also

of the Banfora zone.

It was a pleasure to undertake research with assis-

tants such as Yambénogo Ouédraogo, now of the Pan-African Institute for Development; Abdoulayue Diallo, Camille Kaboré,

and Jean-Baptiste Bonkoungou, all of the CVRS; Peter Kazoni

of the Ministry of National Education; and all of their

colleagues who assumed the exacting tasks of coding,

transcribing, typing, and other seemingly endless assign-

ments. They put in inhuman overtime to meet deadlines and worked efficiently and with good humor even when budgetary constraints obligated them to work in less than ideal

conditions from a base in my living room and patio.

The felicitous idea of undertaking dissertation work

in Upper Volta I owe to Dr. Robert Meagher of the Fletcher

School, and I thank him for this and much other advice.


xiii
For my initial introduction in Upper Volta in 1968, I am

grateful to Prof. Daniel Pépy of the Institut d’Etudes

Politiques of the University of Paris, with whom I began

my studies on aid to Upper Volta during the two-year period

of my Fulbright grant. Professor Pépy presented me to many Voltaics, the first of whom in Upper Volta was Dr. Joseph

Issoufou Conombo, now Prime Minister, whose ongoing friend-

ship and support of my work are highly valued.

I am indebted to Dr. Carl K. Eicher of Michigan State University for contributing thoughts on my dissertation

theme during his numerous visits to Upper Volta. Both

Dr. Eicher and Dr. Shirley Fisher made it possible for

Scholastique Kompaoré and me to present an earlier study on

the role of women in development in Upper Volta at the

Seminar on Women in Rural Development in Africa: Implica-

tions for Donor Organizations, sponsored in Washington, D.C.

in 1976 by the Overseas Liaison Committee of the American Council on Education. As discussants of this paper, Moise Mensah, then Vice President and Executive Secretary of the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment, and

John Hoskins advanced our thinking on these broader issues.

Dr. Philip J. Stone of Harvard University, who visited

the research site, generously shared his expertise and

personal library in the area of time budget. Dr. Jonathan Silverstone, of USAID and a member of its initial task

force on women in development, offered valuable insights

following a review of all of the research instruments and

a visit to one Project zone while on mission in Upper Volta.


xiv
Judith Bruce and Achola Pala Okeyo of the Population Council provided me with the opportunity to present for

discussion several aspects of rural women’s time use in

Upper Volta at the Seminar on Rural Women and the Sexual Division of Labor, held at the Council in early 1979.

Dr. Hanna Papanek of Boston University and Brigid O’Farrell

of the Wellesley College Centre for Research on Women

kindly offered helpful comments on this and other aspects

of my work.

I am indebted to Althea Duersten of the World Bank;

Dr. Mayra Buvinić of the International Centre for Research

on Women; Dr. Ralph Harbison and Adrienne Germaine of the

Ford Foundation; Dr. Christopher L. Delgado of the Center

for Research on Economic Development; Dr. Charles P.

Humphreys of the Food Research Institute; and Edmund

Sullivan, Laura McPherson, and Don Atwell of USAID for

sharing both ideas and documentation.

I am grateful to David Charles Ganao, who as Deputy Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Com-

mission for Africa (UNECA) encouraged me in my research

project and also to the Head of the UNECA’s Training and

Research Centre for Women, Mary Tadesse, and her former and current colleagues, notably Margaret Snyder, Marilyn Carr,

and Nancy Hafkin.

To Dr. William Sprague Barnes, Dr. Ruhl J. Bartlett,

Dr. Don D. Humphrey, and Dr. John Spencer of the Fletcher

School of Law and Diplomacy I owe special thanks; also appreciated is the assistance of other members of the


xv

faculty and staff which I have received these many years



in conjunction with this endeavor. In addition the per-

sonnel of the Tufts University Computer Center have been

most helpful, notably Patricia Bensetler. The Thomas

More Bookstore kindly coordinated my requests for pro-

fessional books during my seven years stay in Africa.

William Martin Cloherty of the Executive Office of the President is to be decorated for his perseverance as Pro-

duction Manager. I am extremely grateful to Marion Freedman

for taking on the task of editing the manuscript. Jo Ellen

Milkovits of the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis is

to be credited for the professional preparation of the final

typed manuscript.

For their unfailing encouragement, I am indebted to

family and friends here and abroad, and special mention is

to be made of my sister and brother-in-law, Nancy and Ronald

Pink, and in Upper Volta, of Julien Yougbaré of UNDP and

Larba Ziba of Boala.

In a work of this duration, many individuals con-

tribute. It is only with the support and consideration

of many friends and colleagues that this endeavour has

been brought to completion. I thank them all. Any short-

comings in the final product are my own.

This effort is dedicated to the memory of my parents.


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