Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía Millennium Institute of Oceanography



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IMO Annual Report - 2014

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Name of the Center:Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía
Millennium Institute of Oceanography


Acronym

IMO

Code

IC120019

Reported period

January 1 to December 31, 2014

Starting date of the Center

December 26, 2013

Address

Universidad de Concepción, Barrio Universitario s/n, 4070386 – Concepción, Chile

Telephone(s)

56(41) 2661266

Web Page

www.imo-chile.cl

Host Institution(s)

Universidad de Concepción

Contact Information

Scientific Contact

Osvaldo Ulloa –Principal Researcher

Electronic Address

oulloa@udec.cl




Institute Principal Researcher Name

Institute Deputy Principal Researcher Name

Osvaldo Ulloa

Ruben Escribano

Principal Researcher’s Signature

Deputy Principal Researcher’s Signature








Index


Section

Page

1. 1.1 Executive Summary

3

1.2 Resumen Ejecutivo

5

2. Introduction

7

3. Scientific and Technological Research

8

4. Education and Capacity Building

18

5. Networking

21

6. Outreach and Connections with Public and Private Sectors

22

7. Administration and Financial Management

25

8. Annexes




1. Institute Researchers

27

2.Research Lines

29

3. Publications

31

4. Organization of Scientific Events

35

5. Education and capacity building

36

6. Networking and other collaborative work

38

7. Outreach

39

8. Connections with other sectors

40

9. Financial Status

41



1.1 Executive Summary
The Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO, Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía) is a center of excellence established at the end of 2013 with the aim of studying and exploring the open and deep ocean. The host institutions are Universidad de Concepción, in Concepción, and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, in Santiago; they concentrate 7 of the 8 associate (principal) researchers. One of the associate researchers is from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, in Valparaíso. IMO has also 1 senior researcher, 9 adjunct researchers and 4 young researchers.
IMO’s mission is: i) to conduct pioneering and interdisciplinary research in oceanography, addressing scientific problems in an integrative and collaborative manner; ii) to develop and apply new technologies and platforms for observational and experimental work in the ocean, including the use of the new Chilean research vessel Cabo de Hornos, and to reach unexplored areas of the South Pacific; iii) to increase human resources in ocean sciences in Chile and South America, through higher education and training in research based on direct observation and experimentation in the sea, and by attracting ocean scientists from all over the world to work in Chile; and iv) to inform and create awareness among the general public and decision-makers about the importance of the ocean, its conservation and its relationship to humans and global change.
IMO has four initial research lines: Mesoscale Processes, Ocean Variability, Adaptations to a Changing Ocean, and The Deep Ocean. Their objectives are: to characterize physical mesoscale (and sub-mesoscale) structures and processes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean (ESP) and their impact on open-ocean and transitional (coast-ocean) ecosystems; to determine how large-scale perturbations impact the transport and gradients in physical-chemical water properties and the dynamics of the ESP; to gain new understanding about the adaptations of key planktonic groups to chemical changes taking place in the ocean (e.g., acidification, deoxygenation, desertification) and the impact of such changes on biogeochemical cycling; and to explore the pelagic environment of the deep and ultra-deep ocean, respectively.
For Research Line 1, activities concentrated on an oceanographic cruise to characterize a frontal and eddy-formation area off central Chile, analyzing field and satellite data, and modeling work. For Research Line 2, work focused on the analysis of existing data sets of previous oceanographic expeditions having large spatial coverage in the South Pacific basin, along with satellite data for recent years, and modeling work. For Research Line 3, the effort was on implementing the analytical capacity to measure the carbonate system, installing a micro/mesocosm facility, consolidating a Chilean collection of micro- and macroalgae, participating in an international expedition, and analyzing and interpreting previously collected observations and experimental data. For Research Line 4, efforts went on acquiring and constructing sampling equipment that can be used under the high pressures found in the deep ocean.
IMO’s 8 associate researchers published 28 ISI articles, one SCIELO article and two book chapters. The other researchers published 9 additional ISI articles. Because it was IMO´s first year, only 9 of the total publications had the IMO affiliation. The publication list thus reflects, principally, work carried out before the existence of the Institute.
In terms of graduate education and postdoctoral training, IMO researchers were involved in regular teaching and student guidance associated with 6 graduate programs. A total of 13 M.Sc., 9 Ph.D. students and 5 postdocs were directly linked to IMO activities. The latter were already linked to IMO researchers, and one of them was fully supported by IMO towards the end of 2014. Three of the M.Sc. students went for doctoral studies in 2014, two of which continue to be linked to IMO. In addition, 6 students (undergraduate and graduate) were co-tutored by IMO researchers. Additionally, IMO researchers trained 8 undergraduate students. IMO was also strongly involved in advanced training for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdocs and young researchers, through one specialized course in 2014, with theoretical and practical activities, the 1st Latin America Workshop on Ocean Acidification.
During 2014, networking activities include the creation of the “Latin-American Ocean Acidification Network (LAOCA Network), involving researchers working in ocean acidification and carbon chemistry in Latin-America, and active participation in the Conference of Parties (20th Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, United Nation Framework Convention for Climate Change, COP20). IMO researchers also participated in a joint workshop with the Millennium Nucleus of Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Islands (ESMOI) to coordinate research activities and scientific meetings associated with the study of oceanic-island environments in the South Pacific. Moreover, Ruben Escribano was appointed as a new member of the Scientific Steering Committee of the International Program Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER), Wolfgang Schneider was appointed as a new member of the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability and Change (CLIVAR) Pacific Panel. Additionally, Cristian A. Vargas was nominated as members of the Technical Advisory Group on Climate Change, from the Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura (GTA). The challenge is to create an Adaptation Plan to contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change on resources, fishing communities and aquaculture, which contribute to the local policy in Chile.
IMO established a dedicated outreach team led by Pablo Rosemblatt, a highly respected professional in the area of scientific communication. IMO´s first-year outreach activities focused primarily on generating long-term strategies that will allow to bring marine scientific knowledge to the society in general and, particularly, to school communities. They included: sustained institutional visibility, broadcasting of audiovisual products, public seminars to leaders and stakeholders, and intensive science workshops for school children. Moreover, IMO developed a tight collaboration with the “Centro Interactivo de Ciencias, Artes y Tecnologías” (CICAT; Interactive Center of Sciences, Arts and Technologies), of Universidad de Concepción. Within this collaboration, IMO researchers and students participated in the Science Camp ChileVA!, organized by CICAT in the Biobío region, to which students were trandergradute nts tion articles. the 8 associate rese Hornos ~150 high-school students attended.


    1. Resumen Ejecutivo

El Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía (IMO) es un centro de excelencia establecido a finales de 2013 con el objetivo de estudiar y explorar el océano abierto y profundo. Las instituciones albergantes son la Universidad de Concepción, en Concepción y la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, en Santiago, las cuales concentran 7 de los 8 investigadores asociados (principales). El otro investigador asociado es de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, en Valparaíso. IMO tiene también 1 investigador sénior, 9 investigadores adjuntos y 4 jóvenes investigadores.


La misión del IMO es: i) llevar a cabo investigación de punta e interdisciplinaria en oceanografía, abordando problemas científicos de una manera integrativa y colaborativa; ii) desarrollar y aplicar nuevas tecnologías y plataformas para el trabajo observacional y experimental en el océano, incluyendo el uso del nuevo buque chileno de investigación Cabo de Hornos, y para llegar a zonas inexploradas del Pacífico Sur; iii) aumentar los recursos humanos en ciencias del mar en Chile y Sudamérica, a través de la educación superior y la formación en investigación basada en la observación directa y la experimentación en el mar, y mediante la atracción de científicos marinos de todo el mundo para trabajar en Chile; y iv) informar y crear conciencia entre el público general y los responsables de la toma de decisiones sobre la importancia de los océanos, su conservación y su relación con los seres humanos y el cambio global.
El IMO tiene cuatro líneas de investigación iniciales: Procesos de Mesoescala, Variabilidad del Océano, Adaptaciones a un Océano Cambiante, y el Océano Profundo. Sus objetivos son –respectivamente-: caracterizar estructuras físicas y procesos de mesoescala (y sub-mesoescala) en el Océano Pacífico Sudorienta (PSO) y determinar su impacto en ecosistemas de alta mar y de transición (costa-océano); determinar cómo las perturbaciones a gran escala afectan el transporte y los gradientes en las propiedades físico-químicas del agua y en la dinámica del PSO; obtener un nuevo entendimiento acerca de las adaptaciones de grupos planctónicos claves a los cambios químicos que tienen lugar en el océano (por ejemplo, la acidificación, la desoxigenación, la desertificación) y el impacto de estos cambios en los ciclos biogeoquímicos; y explorar el ambiente pelágico de aguas profundas y ultra-profundas del océano.
Para Línea de Investigación 1, las actividades se concentraron en una campaña oceanográfica para caracterizar un área de frentes y la formación de remolinos frente a Chile central, el análisis de datos de terreno y de satélite, y trabajo de modelamiento. Para Línea de Investigación 2, el trabajo se centró en el análisis de conjuntos de datos existentes de expediciones oceanográficas anteriores que tienen gran cobertura espacial en la cuenca del Pacífico Sur, junto con los datos de satélite para los últimos años, y en trabajo de modelamiento. Para Línea de Investigación 3, el esfuerzo fue en la implementación de la capacidad analítica para medir el sistema de carbonato, la instalación de un centro de micro / mesocosmos, consolidar una colección chilena de micro y macroalgas, participar en una expedición internacional, y en el análisis e interpretación de observaciones recogidas anteriormente y de datos experimentales. Para Línea de Investigación 4, los esfuerzos fueron en la adquisición y construcción de equipos de muestreo que se pueda utilizar bajo las altas presiones que se encuentran en las profundidades del océano.
Los 8 investigadores asociados de IMO publicaron 28 artículos ISI, un artículo SCIELO y dos capítulos de libros. Los otros investigadores publicaron 9 artículos ISI adicionales. Debido a que fue el primer año de IMO, sólo 9 de l total de publicaciones tuvieron afiliación al IMO. Así, la lista de publicaciones refleja, principalmente, el trabajo llevado a cabo antes de la existencia del Instituto.
En cuanto a la educación de postgrado y formación postdoctoral, los investigadores IMO estuvieron involucrados en la enseñanza regular y guía de estudiantes de 6 programas de posgrado. Un total de 13 estudiantes de Magister, 9 estudiantes de doctorado y 5 postdoctorados estuvieron directamente relacionados con las actividades del IMO. Estos últimos ya estaban previamente vinculados a los investigadores del IMO; uno de ellos fue apoyado plenamente por la IMO hacia fines de 2014. Tres de los estudiantes de Magister continuaron con estudios de doctorado en 2014, dos de los cuales siguieron vinculados al IMO. Además, 6 estudiantes (pregrado y posgrado) fueron en co-tutela de investigadores del IMO. Además, los investigadores del IMO entrenaron a 8 estudiantes de pregrado. El IMO también participó activamente en la formación avanzada de estudiantes de pregrado y postgrado, así como investigadores postdoctorales y jóvenes investigadores, a través de un curso de especialización en el 2014, con actividades teóricas y prácticas, el 1er Taller Latinoamericano sobre Acidificación de los Océanos.
Durante 2014, las actividades de red incluyeron la creación de la "Red Latinoamericana-acidificación del océano (LAOCA Red) -con participación de investigadores que trabajan en la acidificación del océano y de la química del carbono en América Latina-, y la participación activa en la Conferencia de las Partes (20ª Conferencia de las Partes de la CMNUCC, la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas para el Cambio Climático, COP20). Investigadores del IMO también participaron en un taller conjunto con el Núcleo Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sostenible de las islas oceánicas (ESMOI) para coordinar actividades de investigación y reuniones científicas relacionadas con el estudio de los ambientes de islas oceánicas en el Pacífico Sur. Por otra parte, Rubén Escribano fue nombrado como nuevo miembro del Comité Directivo Científico del Programa Internacional Integrado de Biogeoquímica Marina y de Investigación de Ecosistemas (IMBER), Wolfgang Schneider fue nombrado como nuevo miembro del Panel Océano y Clima: Variabilidad, Predictibilidad y Cambio (CLIVAR ), Grupo Pacífico. Adicionalmente, Cristian A. Vargas fue nominado como miembros del Grupo Técnico Asesor sobre el Cambio Climático, de la Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura (GTA). El desafío es crear un plan de adaptación para contribuir a la mitigación de los efectos del cambio climático sobre los recursos, las comunidades pesqueras y la acuicultura, que contribuyan a la política local en Chile.
El IMO estableció un equipo dedicado para la extensión, dirigido por Pablo Rosemblatt, un profesional muy respetado en el ámbito de la comunicación científica. Las actividades de extensión del primer año se centraron principalmente en la generación de estrategias a largo plazo que permitan acercar el conocimiento científico marino a la sociedad en general y, particularmente, a las comunidades escolares, entre ellas: una visibilidad sostenida institucional, la difusión de productos audiovisuales, seminarios públicos a líderes de opinión y grupos de interés, y talleres de ciencia intensivos para niños en edad escolar. Por otra parte, el IMO desarrolló una estrecha colaboración con el "Centro Interactivo de Ciencias, Artes y Tecnologías" (CICAT), de la Universidad de Concepción. Dentro de esta colaboración, investigadores y estudiantes del IMO participaron en el Campamento de Ciencias de Chile VA!, organizado por CICAT en la región del Biobío, a la que asistieron ~150 estudiantes de secundaria.
2.- Introduction
a) Description of the Institute:

The Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO, Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía) is a center of excellence established at the end of 2013 with the aim of studying and exploring the open and deep ocean. Its vision is to become an internationally recognized institute in oceanographic research and education, leading exploration in the central and eastern area of the South Pacific Ocean, with impact on the country and society in general. IMO´s commitment is to provide an intellectually stimulating environment for the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge that generates new understanding about the ocean, from a creative, daring and collaborative perspective.

IMO’s mission is: i) to conduct pioneering and interdisciplinary research in oceanography, addressing scientific problems in an integrative and collaborative manner; ii) to develop and apply new technologies and platforms for observational and experimental work in the ocean, including the use of the new Chilean research vessel Cabo de Hornos, and to reach unexplored areas of the South Pacific; iii) to increase human resources in ocean sciences in Chile and South America, through higher education and training in research based on direct observation and experimentation in the sea, and by attracting ocean scientists from all over the world to work in Chile; and iv) to inform and create awareness among the general public and decision-makers about the importance of the ocean, its conservation and its relationship to humans and global change.
b) Research Lines: The Institute has four initial research lines:
- Mesoscale Processes: The focus of this research line is the characterization of physical mesoscale (and sub-mesoscale) structures and processes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean (ESP) and their impact on open-ocean and transitional (coast-ocean) ecosystems. Mesoscale structures include eddies and fronts of different types, but probably other types of less studied structures associated with seamounts, ridges, and oceanic islands. The research strategy is based on field and modeling work.

Field observations will be performed to study the characteristics and evolution of mesoscale eddies, which are generated off the coast of central Chile and propagate NW, reaching the surroundings of the Juan Fernández Archipelago. They include time-series observations, through satellite remote sensing and a mooring around the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, as well as glider sections and process-oriented cruises. Perturbation experiments using single and multiple stressors in the contrasting waters will also be carried out. Additionally, using numerical experiments, we will analyze mesoscale-eddy structure, generation and transport, particularly in the OMZ and near oceanic islands and seamounts associated to the Nazca and Juan Fernandez ridges.


- Ocean Variability: The objective of this research line is to determine how large-scale perturbations impact the transport and gradients in physical-chemical water properties and the dynamics of the eastern South Pacific Ocean. The research strategy is based on observational and modeling work.

New hydrographic data will come from IMO and other oceanographic expeditions. Vertical high-resolution microstructure and turbulent mixing indices will also be obtained, which will allow the calculation of vertical fluxes of salt, heat and relevant biogeochemical properties. These high-resolution data, along with historical data, will allow an assessment of the interannual and lower frequency changes in the meridional transport and in the physical and chemical properties in the thermocline and intermediate waters. Different model simulations will generate output to be fed into regional models for evaluating mechanisms impacting coastal upwelling, mesoscale-eddy generation, regional circulation, and water-mass modifications.


- Adaptations to a Changing Ocean: The objective of this research line is to gain new understanding about the adaptations (at the genomic, physiological, behavioral and community-structure level) of key planktonic groups to chemical changes taking place in the ocean (e.g., acidification, deoxygenation, desertification) and the impact of such changes on biogeochemical cycling. The research strategy is based on laboratory and fieldwork.

For lab work, isolation of selected species of key plankton functional groups across environmental gradients and single-stressor (perturbation) experiments will be initially done in order to understand their response to variations in pCO2/pH, O2 and nutrients. Based on these results, genome analysis of selected species and multi-stressor experiments will be carried out.

For fieldwork, observations and experiments will be carried out in IMO-organized and other oceanographic expeditions. In–situ/On-board physiological/metabolic and community rates, gene content and expression, and particle flux measurements will be obtained. Also, culture-independent genetic/genome analysis of representative species will test associations among genomic variation, variability in physiology, and changes in water chemical properties. On-board experiments will expose distinct onshore and offshore plankton communities to single and multiple stressors.
-The Deep Ocean:The objective of this research line is to explore the deep and ultra-deep ocean, determining the pelagic-community ecology and physical/biogeochemical characteristics of the bathyal (> 1000 m), abyssal (>4,000 m) and hadal (>6,000 m) waters of the eastern South Pacific.

Special emphasis will be on mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of endemic communities and the connectivity among the different deep biomes (i.e., islands, seamounts, trenches, etc.). IMO will organize as well as participate in major research expeditions to study the deep and ultra-deep waters of the eastern South Pacific, including the Atacama Trench. Appropriate sampling, observational, and experimental technology will be implemented and developed, accordingly.

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