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Tabla 15: Tipos de cirugía de la epilepsia



BIBLIOGRAFIA


  1. Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy: Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy . Epilepsia 1993; 34: 592-596.

  2. Hauser WA, Kurland LT: the epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Epilepsia 1975; 16: 1-66.

  3. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT: prevalence of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota: 1940-1980. Epilepsia 1991; 32: 429-45.

  4. Stroink H, Brouwer OF, Arts WA, Geerts AT, Peters AC, van Donselaar CA: The first unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: a hospital based study of the accuracy of the diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 64: 595-600.

  5. Shinnar S, Berg AT: Does antiepileptic drug therapy prevent the development of “chronic” epilepsy ?. Epilepsia 1996; 37: 701-708.

  6. Berg AT, Shinnar S. Do seizures beget seizures? An assessment of the clinical evidence in humans. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14:102–110.

  7. Sander JW: Some aspects of prognosis in the epilepsies: a review. Epilepsia 1993; 34: 1007-1016.

  8. Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe SL, O`Dell C, Alemany M, Newstein D, Kang H, Goldensohn ES, Hauser A: The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked afebrile seizure in childhood: an extended follow-up. Pediatrics 1996; 98: 216-225.

  9. Maytal J, Shinnar S, Moshé SL, Alvarez LA: Low morbidity and mortality of status epilepticus in children. Pediatrics 1989; 83: 323-331.

  10. Buck D, Baker GA, Jacoby A, Smith DF, Chadwick DW. Patients' experiences of injury as a result of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1997;38(4):439-44.

  11. Neufeld MY, Vishne T, Chistik V, Korczyn AD. Life-long history of injuries related to seizures. Epilepsy Res. 1999; 34: 123-7.

  12. Diekema DS, Quan L, Holt VL. Epilepsy as a risk factor for submersion injury in children. Pediatrics. 1993;91(3):612-6.

  13. Lhatoo SD, Johnson AL, Goodridge DM, MacDonald BK, Sander JWAS, Shorvon SD: Mortality in Epilepsy in the first 11 to 14 years after diagnosis: multivariate analysis of a long-term, prospective, population-based cohort. Ann Neurol 2001; 49: 336-344.

  14. Berg AT, Shinnar S: The risk of seizure recurrence follow­ing a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review. Neurol­ogy 1991; 41: 965-972.

  15. Ramos Lizana J, Cassinello García E, Carrasco Marina LL, Vázquez López M, Martín González M, Muñoz Hoyos A: Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure in childhood: a prospective study. Epilepsia 2000; 41: 1005-1013.

  16. Hopkins A, Garman A, Clarke C: the first seizure in adult life: value of clinical features, electroencephalography and computerized tomographic scanning in prediction of seizure recurrence. Lancet 1988; 1; 721-726.

  17. Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, Anderson VE: Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure: an extended fol­low-up. Neurology 1990; 40: 1163-1170.

  18. Shinnar S, Maytal J, Krasnoff L, Moshé SL: Recurrent status epilepticus in children. Ann neurol 1992; 31: 598-604.

  19. First Seizure Trial Group. Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing the risk of relapse after a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. Neurology 1993; 43: 478-483.

  20. Chandra B. First seizure in adults: to treat or not to treat. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1992;94:S61–S63.

  21. Das CP, Sawhney IMS, Lal V, Prabhakar S. Risk of recurrence of seizures following single unprovoked idiopathic seizure. Neurol India 2000;48:357–360.

  22. Camfield P, Camfield C, Dooley J, Smith E, Garner B. A randomized study of carbamazepine versus no medication after a first unprovoked seizure in childhood. Neurology 1989;39:851–852.

  23. Gilad R, Lampl Y, Gabbay U, Eshel Y, Sarova-Pinhas I. Early treatment of a single generalized tonic-clonic seizure to prevent recurrence. Arch Neurol. 1996; 53: 1149-52.

  24. Musicco M, Beghi E, Solari A, First Seizure Trial Group: Effect of antiepileptic treatment initiated after a first unprovoked seizure on the long term prognosis of epilepsy. Neurology 1994; 44 (Suppl 2): 337-338.

  25. Canadian Study Group for Childhood Epilepsy. Clobazam has equivalent efficacy to carbamazepine and phenytoin as monotherapy for childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1998; 39: 952-9.

  26. Thilothammal N, Banu K, Ratnam RS. Comparison of phenobarbitone, phenytoin with sodium valproate: randomized, double-blind study. Indian Pediatr 1996; 33: 549-55.

  27. de Silva M, MacArdle B, McGowan M, Hughes E, Stewart J, Neville BG, Johnson AL, Reynolds EH. Randomised comparative monotherapy trial of phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. Lancet. 1996; 347: 709-13.

  28. Verity CM, Hosking G, Easter DJ. A multicentre comparative trial of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in paediatric epilepsy. The Paediatric EPITEG Collaborative Group. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995; 37: 97-108.

  29. Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF et al. Comparison of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone in partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. N Eng J Med 1985; 313: 145-51.

  30. Heller AJ, Chesterman P, Elwes RDC, Crawford P, Chadwick D, Johnson AL, Reynolds EH. Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepina, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed adult epilepsy: a randomized comparative monotherapy trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995; 58: 44-50.

  31. Richens A, Davidson DL, Cartlidge NE, Easter DJ. A multicentre comparative trial of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in adult onset epilepsy. Adult EPITEG Collaborative Group. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994; 57: 682-7.

  32. Canadian Study Group for Childhood Epilepsy. The cognitive and behavioural effects of clobazam and standard monotherapy are comparable. Epilepsy Res 1999;33:133–143.

  33. Vining EP, Mellits ED, Dorsen MM, et al. Psychologic and behavioural effects of antiepileptic drugs in children: a double-blind comparison between phenobarbital and valproic acid. Pediatrics 1987;80:165–174.

  34. Chen YJ, Kang WM, So WCM. Comparison of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in newly diagnosed epileptic children: a psychometric and neurophysiological study. Epilepsia 1996;37:81–86.

  35. Berg I, Butler A, Ellis M, Foster J. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy in childhood treated with carbamazepine, phenytoin or sodium valproate: a random trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 1993; 35:149–157.

  36. Forsythe I, Butler R, Berg I, McGuire R. Cognitive impairment in new cases of epilepsy randomly assigned to carbamazepine, phenytoin and sodium valproate. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:524–534.

  37. Hauser WA, Rich SS; Lee JR, Annegers JF, Anderson VE: Risk of recurrent seizures after two unprovoked seizures. N Eng J Med 1998; 338: 429-34.

  38. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group: Randomized study of antiepileptic drug withdrawal in patients in remission. Lancet 1991; 337: 1175-1180.

  39. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group: Prognostic index for recurrence of seizures after remission of epilepsy. BMJ 1993; 306: 1374-8.

  40. Berg AT, Shinnar S: Relapse following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs: a meta-analysis. Neurology 1994; 44: 601-608.

  41. Chadwick D, Taylor J, Johnson T: outcomes after seizure recurrence in people with well-controlled epilepsy and the factors that influence it. The MRC Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Group. Epilepsia 1996; 37: 1043-50.

  42. Shinnar S, Berg A, Moshe S: Discontinuing antiepileptic medication in children with epilepsy: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 1994; 35: 534-545.

  43. Braathen G, Melander H: Early discontinuation of treatment in children with uncomplicated epilepsy: a prospective study with a model for prediction of outcome. Epilepsia 1997; 38: 561-9.

  44. Peters ACB, Brower OF, Geerts AT, Arts WFM, Stroink H, van Donselaar CA: randomized prospective study of early discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy. Neurology 1998; 50: 724-30.

  45. Dooley J, Gordon K, Camfield P, Camfield C, Smith E: Discontinuation of anticonvulsant therapy in children free of seizures for 1 year. Neurology 1996; 46: 969-74

  46. Tennison M, Greenwood R, Lewis D, Thorn M: Discontinuing antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy: a comparison of a six-week and a nine-month taper period. N Eng J Med 1994; 330: 1407-1410.

  47. Sirven JL, Sperling M, Wingerchuk DM: interrupción precoz versus tardía de medicamentos antiepilépticos en personas con epilepsia en remisión. En: La Cochrane Library plus en español. Oxford: Update software.

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  1. Gastaut JL. Difficultés et obstacles au cours du traitement medical des epilepsies. Presse Med 2003; 32:896 903.




  1. Deckers CLP, Genton P, Sills GJ, Schmidt D. Current limitations of antiepileptic drug therapy: a conference review. Epilepsy res 2003; 53:1-17.




  1. Deckers CLP, Czuczwar SJ, Hekster YA, Keyser A, Kubova H, Meinardi H, Patsalos PN, Renier WO, Van Rijn CM. Selection of antiepileptic drug polytherapy based on mechanisms of action: the evidence reviewed. Epilepsia 2000; 41:1364-1374.




  1. Genton P. When antiepileptic drugs aggravate epilepsy. Brain Dev 2000; 22:75 80.




  1. Bourgeois BF. Chronic management of seizures in the syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia 2003; 44 (supl 2):27 32.




  1. Mackay M, Weiss S, Snead OC. Treatment of infantile spasms: an evidence based approach. Int Rev Neurobiol 2002; 49:157 184.




  1. Cloyd JC, Remmel RP. Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics and interactions: impact on treatment of epilepsy. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20(8 Pt 2):139S 151S




  1. Bazil CW; Pedley TA. Clinical pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs. Clin Neuropharmacol 2003; 26:38 52.




  1. Patsalos PN, Fröscher W, Pisani F, van Rijn CM. The importance of drug interacions in epilepsy therapy. Epilepsia 2002; 43:365-385.




  1. Arroyo S, de la Morena A. Life-threatening adverse events of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Res 2001; 47:155-174.




  1. Crumrine PK. Antiepileptic drug selection in pediatric epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2002;17 (supl 2):2S2 2S8.




  1. Holland KD. Efficacy, pharmacology, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Neurol Clin 2001; 19:313 345.




  1. Gareri P, Gravina T, Ferreri G, de Sarro G. Treatment of epilepsy in the elderly Progr Neurobiol 1998; 58:389-407.




  1. Tallis R, Boon P, Perucca E, Stephen L. Epilepsy in elderly people: management issues. Epileptic Disord 2002; 4 (supl2):S33-S39.




  1. Rademaker M. Do women have more adverse drug reactions? Am J Clin Dermatol 2001; 2:349-351.




  1. Wong IC, Mawer GE, Sander JW. Factors influencing the incidence of lamotrigine related skin rash. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33:1037 1042.




  1. Kälviäinen R, Nousianen I. Visual field defects with vigabatrin; epidemiology and therapeutic implications. CNS Dugs 2001; 15:217-230.




  1. Reith D, Burke C, Appleton DB, Wallace G, Pelekanos J. Tolerability of topiramate in children and adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health 2003; 39: 416-419.




  1. Crawford P. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception. CNS Drugs 2002; 16:263 272




  1. Perucca E, Beghi E, Dulac O, Shorvon S, Tomson T. Assessing risk to benefit ratio in antiepileptic drug therapy. Epilepsy Res 2000; 41:107 139.




  1. Shorvon SD, Reynolds EH. Reduction in polypharmacy for epilepsy. BMJ. 1979; 2:1023-1025.




  1. Schmidt D. Reduction of two drugs therapy in intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1983; 24: 368-376.




  1. Kwan, P and Brodie, MJ. Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:314-9.




  1. Brodie, MJ. MD, Kwan, Patrick MD. Staged approach to epilepsy management. Neurology 2002;58(Suppl 5):S2-S8.




  1. Beghi E, Gatti G, Tonini C, Ben-Menachen E, Chadwick D W, Nikanorova M, Gromov S A, Smith P, Specchio L M, Perucca E. On behalf of BASE Study Group. Adjunctive therapy versus alternative monotherapy in patients with patial epilepsy failing on a single drug: a multicentre, randomised, pragmatic controlled trial. Epilepsy Res. 2003 Nov; 57(1):1-13




  1. Steven Karceski, Martha Morrell and Daniel Carpenter. The Expert Consensus Guideline Series*1: Treatment of Epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior Dec 2001; 2(6): A1-A50.




  1. Wiebe S, Blume WT, Girvin JP, Eliasziw M; Effectiveness and Efficiency of Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Study Group. A randomized, controlled trial of surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 2;345(5):311-8.




  1. Kwan, Patrick MD, PhD. Brodie, Martin J. MD Clinical trials of antiepileptic medications in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 60(11) (Supplement 4):S2-S12, June 2003.




  1. Marson AG, Williamson PR, Hutton JL, Clough HE, Chadwick DW; on behalf of the epilepsy monotherapy trialists. Carbamazepine versus valproate monotherapy for epilepsy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.




  1. Smith C, Marson AG, Williamsom PR. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2001; 4:CD0017690




  1. Smith C, Marson AG, Clough HE, Williamsom PR. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2002; 2: CD001911.




  1. Brodie MJ, Richens A, Yuen AW. Double-blind comparison of lamotrigine and carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Lamotrigine/Carbamazepine Monotherapy Trial Group. Lancet. 1995 Feb 25;345(8948):476-9.




  1. Gillham R, Kane K, Bryant-Comstock L, Brodie MJ. A double-blind comparison of lamotrigine and carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy with health-related quality of life as an outcome measure. Seizure. 2000 Sep;9(6):375-9.




  1. Chadwick DW, Anhut H, Greiner MJ, Alexander J, Murray GH, Garofalo EA, Pierce MW. A double-blind trial of gabapentin monotherapy for newly diagnosed partial seizures. International Gabapentin Monotherapy Study Group 945-77. Neurology. 1998 Nov;51(5):1282-8.




  1. Privitera MD, Brodie MJ, Mattson RH, Chadwick DW, Neto W, Wang S; EPMN 105 Study Group. Topiramate, carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy: double-blind comparison in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 Mar;107(3):165-75.

  2. Brodie MJ, Chadwick DW, Anhut H, et al. Gabapentin versus lamotrigine monotherapy: a double-blind comparison in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002; 43: 993-1000.




  1. Asconapé JJ. Some common issues in the use of antiepileptic Drugs. Seminars in neurology 2002; 22(1): 27-39.




  1. Faught. Clinical trals for treatmen of primary generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia 2003; 44 suppl 7: 44-50.




  1. Posner EB, Mohamed K, Marson AG. Ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine for absence seizures in children and adolescents (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Metanalisis)




  1. Benbadis SR, Tatum WO, Gieron M. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy and choice of antiepileptic drugs. Neurology 200; 61:1793-1795.




  1. Foldvary-Schaefer N, Falcone T.Catamenial epilepsy: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.Neurology. 2003 Sep 1;61(6 Suppl 2):S2-15.




  1. Biton V. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on bodyweight. CNS Drugs. 2003; 17 (11): 781-91.




  1. Gilliam F. Optimizing health outcomes in active epilepsy. Neurology 2002; 58 (Suppl 5): S9-S19.




  1. Boylan LS, Flint LA, Labobitz DL, Jackson SC, Starner K and Devinsky O. Depression but not seizure frequency predicts quality of life in treatment-resistant epilepsy. Neurology 2004; 62: 258-261.




  1. Gilliam FG, Fessler AJ, Baker G, Vahle V, Carter J, and Attarian H. Systematic screening allows reduction of adverse antiepileptic drug effects. Neurology 2004; 62: 23-27. Neurology 2004; 62: 23-27.




  1. Temkin NR. Risk factors for posttraumatic seizures in adults. Epilepsia 2003; 44 Suppl 10: 18-20.




  1. Schierhout G, Roberts I. Antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures following acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; (2): CD000173.




  1. Kuijlen JM, Teernstra OP, Kessels AG, Herpers MJ, Beuls EA. Effectiveness of antiepileptic prophylaxis used with supratentorial craniotomies: a meta-análysis. Seizure 1996; 5: 291-298.




  1. De Santis A, Villani R, Sinisi M, Stocchetti N, Perucca E. Afails to prevent early seizures after surgery in supratentorial brain tumors : controlled study. Epilepsia 2002; 43 (2): 175-82.




  1. Forsyth PA, Weaver S, Fulton D, Brasher PM, Sutherland G, Stewart D, Hagen NA, Barnes P, Cairncross JG, DeAngelis LM. Prophylactic anticonvulsivants in patients with brain tumour.Can J Neurol Sci.2003 May; 30 (2): 106-12.




  1. Rhoney DH, Tipps LB, Murry KR, Basham MC, Michael DB, Coplin WM. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis and timing of seizures after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.Neurology. 2000 Jul 25;55(2):258-65.




  1. Arzimanoglou A, Guerrini R, Aicardi J. Aicardi’s epilepsy in children. 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, 2004.




  1. Panayiotopoulos CP. A clinical guide to epileptic syndrome and their treatment. Oxford: Bladon Medical Publishing. 2.002.




  1. Arzimanoglou A. Treatment options in paediatric epilepsy síndromes. Epileptic disord 2002; 4: 217-25.




  1. Ohtahara S, Yamatogi Y. Epileptic encephalopathies in early infancy with suppression-burst. J Clin Neurophysiol 2003; 20: 398-407.




  1. Main MJ, Cryan JE, Dupere JR, Cox B, Clare JJ, Burbidge SA. Modulation of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels by the novel anticonvulsant retigabine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000; 58: 253-62.




  1. Hancock E, Osborne JP, Milner P. Treatment of infantile spasms (Cochrane review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Update Software.




  1. Mackay M, Welss S, Snead OC III. Treatment of infantile spasms: an evidence-base approach. Int Rev Neurobiol 2002; 49: 157-84.




  1. Hrachovy RA, Frost JD Jr. Infantile epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia (infantile spasms/West syndrome). J Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 20: 408-25.




  1. Elterman RD, Shields WD, Mansfield et al. Randomized trial vigabatrin in patients with infantile spasms. Neurology 2001; 57: 1416-21.




  1. Chiron C, Dumas C, Jambaque I et al. Randomized trial comparing vigabatrin and hydrocortisone in infantile spasms due to tuberous sclerosis. Epilepsy Res 1997; 26: 389-95.




  1. Wheless JW, Sankar R. Treatment strategies for myoclonic seizures and epilepsy síndromes with myoclonic seizures. Epilepsia 2003; 44 (Suppl 11): 27-37.




  1. Coppola G, Capovilla G, Montagnini A, Romeo A, Spano M, Tortorella G et al. Topiramate as add-on drug in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: an Italian multicenter open trial. Epilepsy Res 2002; 49: 45-8.




  1. Chiron C, Marchand MC, Tran A, et al. Stiripentol in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: a randomized placebo-controlled syndrome-dedicated trial. STICLO study group. Lancet 2000; 356: 1638-42.




  1. Oguni H, Tanaka T, Hayashi K et al. Treatment and long-term prognosis of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy of early childhood. Neuropediatrics 2002; 33: 122-32.




  1. Perucca E, Grant L, Avanzini G et al. Antiepileptic drugs as a cause of worsening seizures Epilepsia 1998; 39: 5-17.




  1. Hancock E, Cross H. Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Sigue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd.




  1. Chamberlain MC. Nitrazepam for refractory infantile spasms and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. J Child Neurol 1996; 11: 31-34.




  1. Sachdeo RC, Glauser TA, Ritter F et al. A double-blind, randomized trial of topiramate in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Topiramate YL Study Goup. Neurology 1999; 52: 1882-87.




  1. Glauser TA, Levisohn PM, Ritter F, Sachdeo RC. Topiramate in Lennox-Gastaut síndrome: open-label treatment of patients completing a randomized controlled trial. Epilepsia 2000; 41(suppl 1): S86-90.




  1. Motte J, Trevathan E, Arvidsson JK et al. Lamotrigine for generalized seizures asociated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Lamictal Lennox-Gastaut study Group. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1807-12.




  1. Eriksson AS, Nergardh A, Hoppu K. The efficacy of lamotrigine in children and adolescents with refractary generalized epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 495-501.




  1. The Felbamate Study Group in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Efficacy of felbamate in childhood epileptic encephalopathy (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome). N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 29-33.




  1. Beran RG, Berkovic SF, Dunagan FM et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of lamotrigine in treatment-resistant generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 1329-33.




  1. Frank LM, Enlow T, Holmes GL et al. Lamictal (lamotrigine) monotherapy for typical absence seizures in children. Epilepsia 1999; 40: 973-79.




  1. Cross J. Topiramate monotherapy for childhod absence seizures: an open label pilot study. Seizure 2002; 11: 406-10.




  1. Verroti A, Latini G, Trotta D, et al. Population study of benign rolandic epilepsy: is treatment needed? Neurology 2002; 59: 476.




  1. Bourgeois BF. Drug treatment of benign focal epilepsies of childhood.
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  1. Rating D, Wolf C, Bast T. for the Sulthiame Study Group. Sulthiame as monotherapy in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Epilepsia 2000; 41: 1284-8.




  1. Rotenberg J, Peral PL. Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 1019-21.




  1. Deckers LP, Stanislaw J, Czuczwar YA, et al. Selection of antiepileptic drug polytherapy based on mechanisms of action: the evidence reviewed. Epilepsia 2000; 41: 1364-74.




  1. Levy R, Cooper P. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Sigue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd.




  1. Hemingway C, Freeman JM, Pillas DJ et al. The ketogenic diet: a 3-to 6-year follow-up of 150 children enrolled prospectively. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 898-905.




  1. Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, McGrogan JR et al. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet for infantile spasms. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 780-83.




  1. Zahn CA, Morrell MJ, Collins SD, et al. Management issues for women with epilepsy. A review of the literature. Neurology 1998;51:949-956.




  1. Pennell PB. Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and lactation. Neurology 2003;61(suppl 2):S35-S42.




  1. Guberman A. Hormonal contraception and epilepsy. Neurology 1999;53 (suppl 1):S38-S40.




  1. Krauss GL, Brandt J, Campbell M, et al. Antiepileptic medication and oral contraceptive interactions : A national survey of neurologists and obstetricians. Neurology 1996 ;46 :1534-1539.




  1. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Neurology 1998;51:944-948.




  1. Peña P. Anticoncepción y epilepsia. En: Forcadas M, Martínez M (eds). Epilepsia y mujer. Madrid: Harcourt;2001:41-52.




  1. Morrell MJ. Guidelines for the care of women with epilepsy. Neurology 1998;51 (suppl 4):S21-S27.




  1. Doose DR, Wang S, Padmanabhan M, et al. Effect of topiramate or carbamazepine on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol in healthy obese and nonobese femnale subjects. Epilepsia 2003;44:540-549.




  1. Sabers A, Öhman I, Christensen J, et al. Oral contraceptives reduce lamotrigine plasma levels. Neurology 2003;61:570-571.




  1. Pennell PB. The importance of monotherapy in pregnancy. Neurology 2003;60(suppl 4):S31-S38.




  1. Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: Neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Neurology 2003;61(Suppl 2):S23-S26.




  1. Yerby MS. Clinical care of pregnant women with epilepsy: Neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Epilepsia 2003;44(Suppl.3):33-40.




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  1. Carrera JM. Prevención primaria de los defectos del tubo neural. Med Clin (Barc) 2003;121:782-784.




  1. Sabers A, Dam M, a-Rogvi-Hansen B, et al. Epilepsy and pregnancy: lamotrigine as main drug used. Acta Neurol Scand 2004;109:9-13




  1. Campistol J. Efectos teratógenos de la epilepsia y de los fármacos antiepilépticos. Rev Neurol 2002;35 (supl 1): S135-S143.




  1. Yerby MS. Quality of life, epilepsy advances, and evolving role of anticonvulsants in women with epilepsy. Neurology 2000;55(suppl 1):S21-S31.




  1. Pennell PB. Pregnancy in the woman with epilepsy: maternal and fetal outcomes. Semin Neurol 2002;22:299-307.




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