La vida de los niños tibetanos bajo la dominacion china



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(visited Oct. 18, 2000).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dechen Tsomo, TCV school nurse, (Aug. 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo ( Aug. 1999)

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-8 ( Nov. 1, 1999).

  • Ver también supra note 121 and accompanying text.

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-11 ( No. 1, 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo (Aug. 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu (Aug. 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with researchers at TCHRD (Oct. 28, 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No.4 , former Chinese medical aide ( Nov. 4, 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-16 (Nov. 7, 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-1 (Oct. 29, 1999).

  • Lawyers for Tibet interview with 2-A (Oct.29, 1999).




    1. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-11 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    2. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-5 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    3. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tibetan government-in-exile officials at the Refugee Reception Centre in Dharamsala, India (Oct. 30, 1999).

    4. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-4 (Nov. 7, 1999).

    5. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 4 (Nov. 4, 1999)

    6. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo (Aug. 1999).

    7. Ver Tibetan Central Administration, Department of Information and International Relations, National Report on Tibet Women (“En Tíbet ocupado, el servicio de salud está orientado no sólo hacia el área urbana, sino que también sirve a los colonos chinos y a los ricos más que a los tibetanos pobres, cuya mayoría predomina. Solamente el 10% del gasto hacendario para la salud está destinado a las áreas rurales; el 90% es dirigido a los centros urbanos donde se encuentran concentrados los colonos chinos, así como las instalaciones de salud.”)

    8. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-5 (Nov. 7, 1999).

    9. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-5 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    10. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-8 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    11. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-16 (Nov. 7, 1999).

    12. ICJ, supra note 2, en 226.

    13. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 3 ( Nov. 4, 1999).

    14. ICJ, supra note 2, en 226

    15. Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Tibet Its Ownership and Human Rights Situation (Sept. 1992).

    16. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo ( Aug. 1999).

    17. Ver UNICEF, Country Statistics: China, Dec. 1, 1999, available at

    18. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tibetan physician, formerly a practitioner in Amdo, (Aug. 1999).

    19. Una fuente, (quien solicitó el anonimato), hizo notar que en algunas regiones, entre el 50 y el 70% de los niños tibetanos , reciben inmunización en áreas rurales. El costo de las vacunas puede variar considerablemente entre cada área.

    20. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tsetan Dorji Sadustshang, M.D. ( Aug. 1999).

    21. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 1 ( Nov. 2, 1999).

    22. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Kelsang Phuntsok, Health and Education Project Officer of the Tibetan government-in-exhile. Health Expert No. 6 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    23. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-7 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    24. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-5 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    25. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo (Aug. 1999).

    26. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo (Aug. 1999).

    27. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tibetan physician, formerly a practitioner in Amdo. (Aug. 1999).

    28. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 4 (Nov. 4, 1999).

    29. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Choegyal, official at the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre (Oct. 30, 1999).

    30. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

    31. Otra dificultad, reconocida como un problema en toda la PRC, es la falta de control de calidad sobre los fabricantes de farmacéuticos y el predominio de medicinas falsas. Ver p.ej. China to Strengthen Pharmaceutical Control, XINHUA, Aug. 21, 2000

    32. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

    33. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tsetan Dorji Sadutshang, M.D. ( Aug. 1999)

    34. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 3 ( Nov. 4, 1999).

    35. ICJ, supra note 2, en 229 ( citando Jin Yangsun, et al. A Study on Patterns in the Average Life Expectancies and Mortality Rates of 56 Nationalities in China in 1990,” 6 CHINESE J. OF POPULATION SCIENCE 263, 268 (1994).

    36. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tsetan Dorji Sadustshang, M.D. ( Aug. 1999).

    37. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

    38. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION., WORLD HEALTH REPORT 1999: MAKING A DIFFERENCE 20 (1999).

    39. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 3 (Nov. 4, 1999).

    40. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No.4 ( Nov. 4, 1999).

    41. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 7 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    42. UNICEF, Ending Iodine Deficiency Forever: A Goal Within our Grasp, at 8 (2000).

    43. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 6 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    44. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-14 (Nov. 10, 1999).

    45. Nutritional and Health Status of Tibetan Children Living at High Altitudes, supra note 264 en 341

    46. Ver id.

    47. ICJ, supra note 2, en 228

    48. La fuente de este estudio solicitó el anonimato.

    49. La fuente de este estudio solicitó el anonimato.

    50. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 1 ( Nov. 2, 1999).

    51. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

    52. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-11 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    53. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-8 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    54. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-1 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    55. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-9 (NOV. 8, 1999) ( Nov. 8, 1999).

    56. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dorji Damdul, M.D., physician at TCV, Dharamsala ( Aug. 1999).

    57. Ver Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, M.D., et al., Kashin-Beck Osteoarthropathy in rural Tibet in Relation to Selenium and Iodine Status. N. ENGL. J. MED., Oct. 15, 1998 en 1113-14; ver también supra notes 335-36 and accompanying text.

    58. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-16 (Nov. 7, 1999).

    59. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-5 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    60. Lawyers for Tibet interviews with researchers at the TCHRD (Oct. 28, 1999) and officials at the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre in Dharamsala, India (Oct. 30, 1999).

    61. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-5 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    62. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-8 (Nov. 4, 1999).

    63. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-12 (Nov. 2, 1999)

    64. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-7 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    65. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No.4 (Nov. 4, 1999).

    66. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-14 (Nov. 6, 1999).

    67. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-11 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    68. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-1 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    69. PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, YEAR BOOK OF HEALTH IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1998).

    70. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Alo ( Aug. 1999).

    71. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 4 (Nov. 4, 1999)

    72. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-1 ( Oct. 29, 1999).

    73. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Dr. Norbu ( Aug. 1999).

    74. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-9 (Nov. 8, 1999).

    75. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Health Expert No. 6 ( Oct. 29, 1999).

    76. CRC, Concluding Observations on China, ¶ 5.

    77. Ver VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST TIBETAN WOMEN, supra note 22 ( 1998).

    78. Id. en 12.

    79. Fitzgibbon, supra note 108, en 345 ( citing Xiaorong Li,, License to Coerce: Violence Against Women, State Responsibility and Legal Failures in China’s Family-Planning Program, 8 YALE J.L. & FEMINISM 145, 154 (1996).

    80. Ver TIN New Update, Increased Restrictions on Birth of Children in Tibet. Feb. 9, 2000; New Birth Control Policies to “Help Families Become Richer,” Feb. 9, 2000.

    81. Ver id.

    82. CRC, art. 6(2).

    83. Ver UNICEF HANDBOOK, supra note 52 en 88.

    84. Ver Fitzgibbon, supra note 108

    85. CRC, art. 2(2)

    86. CRC, art. 24(1)

    87. CRC, art. 27(1)

    88. Ver, p.ej., Human Rights in China, “Protections” Fail to Protect: China’s implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CHINA RTS. FORUM (Spring 1996).

    89. Interview No. 1, quoted in VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST TIBETAN WOMEN, supra note 22, en 12.

    90. Interview No. 11, quoted in VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST TIBETAN WOMEN, supra note 22, en 13.

    91. Ver VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST TIBEN WOMEN, supra note 22, en 11. Las políticas de planeación familiar en China pueden ser consideradas evidencia de genocidio, tal como se define en el artículo 2º de la Convención sobre Genocidio, debido a que ellas imponen medidas intencionadas a prevenir nacimientos dentro de [un] grupo”. El estricto cumplimiento de estas políticas de planeación familiar contra los tibetanos, en contraste con las políticas diseñadas para duplicar la población del Tíbet con colonos chinos, da origen a la conclusión de su intento por extinguir -en su totalidad o de manera parcial-, a los tibetanos como un pueblo.

    92. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-11 (Nov. 2, 1999).

    93. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-3 (Nov. 6, 1999).

    94. Cifras suministradas por el Centro de Recepción de Refugiados en Dharamsala, India, del Gobierno tibetano en el exilio, sugieren que aproximadamente 1000 niños (definidos como personas menores a la edad de dieciocho años) llegan cada año al exilio:



    Año No. de Niños No. de Niños

    Edad 6-13 Edad 14-25
    1996 472 1,325

    1997 442 1,459

    1998 631 1,993

    1999 323 969

    (al 8/99)

    El número real de niños en el exilio puede ser mayor. Estas cifras reflejan solamente aquellos niños registrados por el Centro de Recepción del Gobierno Tibetano en el exilio. Algunos niños permanecen en Nepal o viajan a otros asentamientos tibetanos en India, sin pasar primero a través de Dharamsala. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tashi Norbu, Director, Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre, Dharamsala, India ( Nov. 5, 1999).



    1. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-6 (Oct. 30, 1999).

    2. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-11 ( Nov. 1, 1999).

    3. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-18 (Nov. 8, 1999).

    4. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Detention Expert No. 1 (Nov. 4, 1999).

    5. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-9 (Nov. 8, 1999).

    6. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tibetan mother (No. 1) from Amdo ( Nov. 5, 1999).

    7. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tibetan mother ( No. 2) from Kham (Nov. 5, 1999).

    8. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-24 (Nov. 10, 1999).

    9. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-13 (Nov. 2, 1999).

    10. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-1 (Nov. 6, 1999).

    11. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-1 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    12. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-1 (Nov. 6, 1999).

    13. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-9 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    14. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-11 ( Nov. 2, 1999).

    15. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-2 ( Oct. 29, 1999).

    16. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-3 (Oct. 29, 1999).

    17. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-9 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    18. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-10 ( Nov. 2, 1999).

    19. Ver TIN News Update, Tibetan Refugee Raped 12 times by Nepalese Police. Feb. 26, 1997; TIN News Update, Tibetan Girls Raped by Police, Feb. 16, 1999.

    20. Lawyers for Tibet interviews with Health Expert No. 1 ( Nov. 2, 1999).

    21. Lawyers for Tibet interview with Tsetan Dorji Sadutshang, M.D. ( Aug. 1999).

    22. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-13 (Nov. 2, 1999).

    23. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-10 (Nov. 8, 1999).

    24. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-2 (Nov. 6, 1999) ( Nov. 6, 1999).

    25. Lawyers for Tibet interview with C-10 (Nov. 8, 1999).

    26. Lawyers for Tibet interview with A-9 (Nov. 1, 1999).

    27. Lawyers for Tibet interview with B-13 (Nov. 6, 1999).

    28. ICCPR, art. 1; ICESCR, art. 1

    29. TCHRD, GEDHUN CHOEKYI NYIMA: THE WORLD’S YOUNGEST POLITICAL PRISIONER (1997).

    30. Ver generally TIN & HRW/Asia, supra note 16, en 52-70 (1996); ICJ, supra note 1, en 285-89; A SEASON TO PURGE, supra note 22, en 48-57.

    31. Ver U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Summary Record of the 299th Mtg.: Consideration of Reports of States Parties: Initial Report of China, ¶¶ 25, 26 May 31, 1996, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/SR.299 (1996).

    32. Id., ¶ 39.

    33. TIN News Update, China’s Panchen Lama Returns to Shigatse, June 23, 1999.

    34. Ver , p.ej. China Still has Panchen Lama, ASSOC. PRESS, Jan. 8, 2000.

    35. Ver TIN News Update, Conflicting Reports on Location of Panchen Lama, Mar. 30, 1998.

    36. SHAKYA, supra note 2, en 444; ver también TIN &HWR/Asia, supra note 16, en 59 en 89 (Haciendo notar que “China da una importancia excepcional al tema del Panchen Lama; ya que su reclamo territorial de Tíbet, está parcialmente basado sobre el Acuerdo de 1792 entre el Emperador Qianlong y el entonces Gobierno tibetano, en el cual se explicaba que los Representantes del Emperador deben estar involucrado en la selección del Panchen Lama y del Dalai Lama”).

    37. G.A. Res. 1353, U.N. GAOR, 14th. Sess. Sujpp. No. 16, en 61 ¶ 2, U.N. Doc. A/4354 (1959).

    38. G.A. Res. 1723, U.N. GAOR, 16th. Sess. Supp. No. 17, vol. 1, en 66 ¶ 2, U.N. Doc. A/5100 (1961).

    39. G.A. Res. 2079, U.N. GAOR, 20th. Sess. Supp. No. 14, en 3 ¶ 1, U. N. Doc. A/6014 (1965)

    40. Sub-Comm’n on Prevention of Discrimiantion and Protection of Minority Rts. Res. 1991/10, 43d Sess. Agenda Item 6, ¶ 1, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1991/10 (1992).

    41. Cada año, (excepto en dos ocasiones) desde 1992, la Comisión ha mantenido una moción de “no- acción” impuesta por China, para bloquear el debate sobre la resolución.

    En 1995, se perdía la moción de no- acción como resultado de un empate; sin embargo, la resolución se perdió debido a un solo voto sobre los méritos. En 1998, ningún país auspició una resolución.

    ABREVIATURAS

    INGLES ESPAÑOL
    PLA People’s Liberation Army ELP Ejercito de Liberación del Pueblo
    PRC People’s Republic of China RPC República del Pueblo de China
    TAR Tibet Autonomous Region RAT Región Autónoma de Tíbet
    CCP Chinese Communist Party PCC Partido Comunista Chino
    ICJ International Commission of Jurists CIJ Comisión Internacional de Juristas
    CRC Committee on the Rights of the Child CDN Comité para los Derechos de l/laNiño/a
    TIN Tibet Information Network RIF Red de Información de Tìbet
    ICCPR International Covenant on Civil PIDCP Pacto Internacional Sobre Derechos Civiles

    and Political Rights. y Políticos.


    PSB Public Security Bureau SSP Secretaría de Seguridad Pública
    TGIE Tibetan Government-In-Exile GTEE Gobierno Tibetano en el Exilio
    TCV Tibetan Children’s Village EHNT Escuela - Hogar de los/as Niños/as Tibetanos/as.





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