Latin America and Caribbean Political Dataset, 1945-2012



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Latin America and Caribbean Political Dataset, 1945-2012

Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens


For financial support we thank the National Science Foundation Grant #SES 0241389 and the Morehead Alumni Distinguished Professorship and the Margaret and Paul A. Johnston Professorships (funding the Gerhard E. Lenski, Jr. Distinguished Professorship) in the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Citation: Please cite these data as Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens, Latin America and the Caribbean Political Dataset, 1945-2012, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2012.
country long spelling with no spaces between words (e.g., CostaRica)
idn two digit identification number
id three letter country code


COUNTRY

IDN

ID

Argentina

01

ARG

Bahamas

02

BHS

Barbados

03

BRB

Belize

04

BLZ

Bolivia

05

BOL

Brazil

06

BRA

Chile

07

CHL

Colombia

08

COL

CostaRica

09

CRI

DominicanRep

10

DOM

Ecuador

11

ECU

ElSalvador

12

ELV

Guatemala

13

GTM

Guyana

14

GUY

Honduras

15

HON

Jamaica

16

JAM

Mexico

17

MEX

Nicaragua

18

NIC

Panama

19

PAN

Paraguay

20

PRY

Peru

21

PER

Suriname

22

SUR

TrinidadTob

23

TTO

Uruguay

24

URY

Venezuela

25

VEN


year 1945-2012
Democracy:
demrss Regime type with some data taken from Table 5.1 of Capitalist Development and Democracy and other data operationalized with rules from appendix of Capitalist Development and Democracy. Colony coded as "0", Authoritarian Regime coded as "1", Bureaucratic Authoritarian coded as "2", Restricted Democracy coded as "3", and Full Democracy coded as "4".
demtri democracy trichotomy, as defined by Mainwaring, et al 2001. “0” is authoritarian; “1” is semidemocracy; “2” is democracy. Mainwaring et al original scores fun 1945-1999. We have updated select countries to 2012.
Citation is: Mainwaring, Scott, Daniel Brinks, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán. (2001) “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945–1999.” Studies in Comparative International Development, Spring 2001, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 37–65. Updated in Mainwaring, Daniel Brinks, and Pérez-Liñán, Political Regimes in Latin America, 1900-2007. http://kellogg.nd.edu/scottmainwaring/index.shtml

demaclp democracy dichotomy, as defined by Przeworski et al 2000. “0” is non-democracy; “1” is democracy. Citation is: Adam Przeworski, Michael E. Alvarez, José Antonio Cheibub, and Fernando Limongi, Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well Being in the World, 1950 1990 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 1-141. Coverage is 1950-1990. Updated to 2002 in the ACLP Political and Economic Database, http://www.nsd.uib.no/macrodataguide/set.html?id=1&sub=1.




dempolity Polity IV scores. Range –10 to 10. Variable from dataset is “polity2”. Updated to year 2012. http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/inscr.htm
demfhpr Political Rights score from Freedom House. Range 1 to 7 with 1 as free and 7 as not free. Coverage is 1972-2012. https://agidata.org/site/SourceProfile.aspx?id=15
demfhcl Civil Liberties score from Freedom House. Range 1 to 7 with 1 as free and 7 as not free. Coverage is 1972-2012. https://agidata.org/site/SourceProfile.aspx?id=15
demfh Overall Freedom House score from Freedom House. Range 0 to 2; “0” not free; “1” partly free; “2” free. Coverage is 1972-2012. https://agidata.org/site/SourceProfile.aspx?id=15
popauthor Designates populist authoritarian regime. Coded 1 for each full year of rule and .5 for each ½ year of rule. Otherwise, coded 0. Coding by authors.
repressauthor Designates repressive authoritarian regime. Coded 1 for each full year of rule and .5 for each ½ year of rule. Otherwise, coded 0. Coding by authors.
Variables SL through U and execpart are based upon the coding criteria in Michael Coppedge’s Kellogg Institute Working Paper #244 entitled “A Classification of Latin American Political Parties.”
Coppedge reports VOTE share by party block. We converted the measure to SEAT share by block. We used an alternative source to determine number of seats by party (mostly Nohlen 1993) and matched party names from Nohlen to party names from Coppedge to calculate the values. Seat Share refers to the proportion of seats received by each category of party in each lower house legislative session during periods of democratic rule (that is, during periods of “democrac” scores of 3 or higher). Party codings for 10 of the countries in the dataset are from Coppedge, including his update for select countries. Party codings for the remaining countries were scored by the authors according to Coppedge’s coding criteria.
For years during which there was a transition from one legislature to another (usually through an election), a given year was coded as from the previous legislature if the transition occurred before July 1 and as from the new legislature if the transition occurred on July 1 or later.
sl Secular left

scl Secular center-left

sc Secular center

scr Secular center-right

sr Secular right

xl Christian left

xcl Christian center-left

xc Christian center

xcr Christian center-right

xr Christian right

per Personalist

o Other

u Unknown
An alternative coding for Argentina has been provided for the years 2010-2012. Due to the fluctuations in ideological position of the Peronist party, in Coppedge’s coding the Peronist party is classified consistently as “other”. The authors continue this coding for the primary coding variables, but given the emergence of a more stable ideology under the Kirchner administrations, it can be argued that the Peronist parties affiliated with the Kirchners should be classified as SCL. The authors determined which parties at the regional level were affiliated with the Kirchners and the seat totals for only those are contained in the alternative scl variable (alt_scl). All non-Kirchner-affiliated Peronist parties are coded as “other” (alt_other). An additional variable that reflects this alternative coding is also provided for execpart (execpart_alt). These variables are at the end of the dataset.
execpart Orientation of the party of the executive, according to Coppedge’s coding rules.

sl Secular left 1

scl Secular center-left 2

sc Secular center 3

scr Secular center-right 4

sr Secular right 5

xl Christian left 6

xcl Christian center-left 7

xc Christian center 8

xcr Christian center-right 9

xr Christian right 10

per Personalist 11

o Other 12

u Unknown 13

execlhshare Seat share in the lower house of the party of the executive.

Variables “electoral” through “judrev” represent VETO POINTS scores and are coded by the authors and adapting the criteria outlined in Huber and Stephens (2001).
electoral Electoral system used for the lower house of congress (or for the single chamber in unicameral legislatures). 0 for proportional representation (PR) (including MMP with FPTP component); 1 for modified PR (including STV (NA in this sample), SMD w/ runoff, Parallel Systems); 2 for single member district plurality. Electoral system names are from Andrew Reynolds, Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis (2005) Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook, http://www.idea.int/publications/esd/.
formgov Form of government. 0 for parliamentary systems and 1 for presidential systems.
federal Degree of federalism. 0 for none; 1 for weak; 2 for strong.
cameral Type of cameralism. 2 for strong bicameralism (symmetrical and incongruent); 1 for weak bicameralism (symmetrical and congruent); 0 for unicameralism (and any variety of asymmetrical bicameralism)
referen Referenda as a provision in the constitution. 0 for doesn’t exist; 1 for exists but isn’t used; 2 for exists and is used. We include both binding referenda and binding popular initiatives in this category (and exclude binding plebiscites, as they are generally about affirming public support for the government). The only country in the region in which binding referenda and binding popular initiatives have been employed is Uruguay. For that case, we code the country with a “2” for the four years prior to the event, for the year of the event, and for the five years following the event (assuming that during the previous four years and subsequent five the country was democratic and the constitution provided for binding public initiatives and plebiscites). The existence of a referenda or binding popular initiative mechanism was coded based on a reading of the constitution, consultation with country-experts, and the coding of when it was used was based on press articles and scholarly publications. In particular, for the Uruguayan case we used:
Altman, David. 2005. “Democracia directa en el continente americano: Autolegitimación gubernamental o censura ciudadana?” Politica y Gobierno. Vol. XII (2): 203-232.
Altman, David. 2002. “Prospects for E-government in Latin America: Satisfaction with Democracy, Social Accountability, and Direct Democracy.” International Review of Public Administration. Vol. 7. N. 2: 5-20.
judrev Judicial Review. 0 for exists and 1 for does not exist.

Variables “womenlh” and “womenuh” are taken from Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1995. “Women in Parliaments: 1945-1995” and from the IPU website for elections from 1995 to 2012.
womenlh Percentage of seats in the lower or only chamber held by women. When elections were held in the first half of the year, the entire year was coded as the new result; when elections were held in the second half of the year, the entire year was coded as the old result. The same rule is applied to legislatures that were dissolved. Null values are therefore present when there was no lower chamber or, in a few cases, where data are missing.
womenuh Percentage of seats in the upper chamber held by women. When elections (or selections) were held in the first half of the year, the entire year was coded as the new result; when elections were held in the second half of the year, the entire year was coded as the old result. The same rule is applied to upper chambers that were dissolved. Null values are therefore present when there was no upper chamber or, in a few cases, where data are missing.

Variables “parl_turnout” and “pres_turnout” are taken from the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) website for elections. Values are left as missing for years in which the country did not classify as a restricted or full democracy under the Capitalist Development and Democracy criteria.

parl_turnout Percentage of voting age population who cast a ballot in the national parliamentary or legislative election. For years during which there was no parliamentary election, the value from the previous election is carried over until the next election that occurs before July 1st in a given year.

pres_turnout Percentage of voting age population who cast a ballot in the national presidential election. For years during which there was no presidential election, the value from the previous election is carried over until the next election that occurs before July 1st in a given year. For countries that operate under a parliamentary system, the values are left as missing.

Variables “comp_vote” and “compvote_enforce” are created using data from the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) website. Values for both variables are left as missing for years in which the country did not classify as a restricted or full democracy under the Capitalist Development and Democracy criteria. Due to the diversity of the content and enforcement of these laws, please refer to the IDEA website for further information about the data.

comp_vote Dichotomous variable signifying whether or not the country had compulsory or mandatory voting laws in a given year. A value of ‘0’ is given for no such law and ‘1’ for the existence of one or multiple laws.
compvote_enforce Degree of enforcement of compulsory or mandatory voting laws. A value of ‘0’ is given if any such law is not enforced; ‘1’ signifies that one or more laws are loosely or irregularly enforced; a value of ‘2’ is given if one or more laws are regularly and strictly enforced.

Notes on coverage and criteria
Coppedge coverage: This data-set is built on Coppedge 1997 published work and 2003 updates. The exact countries and dates covered by Coppedge are: the lower-chamber or constituent assembly elections for Argentina 1912–95, Bolivia 1956–93, Brazil 1945–94, Chile 1915–93, Colombia 1931–94, Costa Rica 1948–94, Ecuador 1947–94, Mexico 1961–94, Peru 1978–95, Uruguay 1917–94, and Venezuela 1947–93. In addition, Coppedge released updates up to 2001 for Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Venezuela. They have all been incorporated into the main data table for years through the Huber/Stephens projects.
Huber-Stephens: We extended his coverage during democratic episode both forward in time until about 2012 and more broadly across the region.

Classification criteria: excerpted from

A CLASSIFICATION OF LATIN AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES”



Michael Coppedge

Kellogg Institute

Working Paper #244 - November 1997
General notes:

  • These criteria are not intended to capture all aspects of a party’s program or image, only those necessary for basic comparison with other Latin American parties.

  • Neither are they intended to reflect every slight or temporary shift in a party’s position. However, in some cases where there is a scholarly consensus that a party made a definite shift in position—as with COPEI’s move toward the center before 1958 or the Chilean Radicals’ shift to the left in the 1960s—its classification should reflect that. The relevant position in this study is the one that would help explain voting behavior. Think of a party’s position as a midpoint between the variable image its leaders try to project in their discourse and the more slowly changing image most voters perceive.

  • The religious dimension and the left-right dimension overlap, so that any party that can be classified in left-right terms must also be classified as Christian or secular (which is defined partly as a residual category to make this easier).

  • Parties that are classifiable in left-right terms do not meet the criteria for the ‘Personalist’ or ‘Other Bloc’ categories as defined here. A prototypical example of each classification is given in italics.


The Criteria:

Christian (X):

  1. Parties that claim to base their ideology and programs on the authority of the Catholic Church, the Bible, or religious philosophy

  2. Parties that defend the temporal interests of the Catholic Church or oppose or seek to reduce the separation of church and state

  3. Parties that are widely perceived as satisfying either of the above criteria, even if religion is no longer an important aspect of their ideology, program, or policies (P. Demócrata Cristiano Chileno).


Secular (S):

  1. A residual category, i.e., parties that do not claim to base their ideology and programs on the authority of the Catholic Church, the Bible, or religious philosophy

  2. Parties that challenge the temporal interests of the Catholic Church or support the separation of church and state (Mexican PRI).


Right (R):

  1. Parties that target heirs of the traditional elite of the nineteenth century without moderating their discourse to appeal to middle- or lower-class voters (Chilean P. Conservador)

  2. Parties that employ a fascist or neofascist discourse (Chilean P. Nacista)

  3. Parties sponsored by a present or former military government, as long as they have a conservative (organicist, authoritarian, elitist, looking to the past) message and are not primarily personalist vehicles for particular authoritarian leaders (Brazilian ARENA).


Center-Right (CR):

  1. Parties that target middle- or lower-class voters in addition to elite voters by stressing cooperation with the private sector, public order, clean government, morality, or the priority of growth over distribution (Argentine UCeDé).


Center (C):

  1. Parties that stress classic political liberalism—broad political participation, civic virtue, the rule of law, human rights, or democracy—without a salient social or economic agenda (Argentine Unión Cívica Radical)

  2. Governing parties whose policies are so divided between positions both to the left and to the right of center that no orientation that is mostly consistent between elections is discernible.


Center-Left (CL):

  1. Parties that stress justice, equality, social mobility, or the complementarity of distribution and accumulation in a way intended not to alienate middle- or upper-class voters (Venezuelan Acción Democrática).


Left (L):

  1. Parties that employ Marxist ideology or rhetoric and stress the priority of distribution over accumulation and/or the exploitation of the working class by capitalists and imperialists and advocate a strong role for the state to correct social and economic injustices. They may consider violence an appropriate form of struggle but not necessarily. They do not worry about alienating middle- and upper-class voters who are not already socialist intellectuals (P. Socialista de Chile; any Communist party)


Other Bloc (O):

  1. Any parties that represent an identifiable ideology, program, principle, region, interest, or social group that cannot be classified in left-right or Christian-secular terms (Unidad Catamarqueña of Argentina, Movimiento Revolucionario Tupak-Katari of Bolivia, P. Verde)


Personalist (P):

  1. Parties that base their primary appeal on the charisma, authority, or efficacy of their leader rather than on any principles or platforms, which are too vague or inconsistent to permit a plausible classification of the party in any other way (P. Nacional Velasquista of Ecuador)

  2. Independents.

  3. Unusually heterogeneous electoral fronts formed to back a candidate (P. Agrario Laborista of Ibáñez in Chile).


Unknown (U):

  1. Parties on which no information other than the name is available and whose names give no reliable clues about their orientation. ‘Comunista’ and ‘Izquierda’ are taken as reliable indicators of parties of the left, while ‘Socialista’ is not. Other common labels that are not considered reliable are Revolucion(ario), Demócrata, Democrático, Radical, Liberal, Laborista, Social, Popular, Auténtico, Republicano, Renovador, Independiente, Agrario, or names of leaders. For the parties with which I am less familiar, the classifications that follow are based primarily on Alexander (1988), Ameringer (1992), and Delury (1983).



PARTIES BY COUNTRY
(30) Argentina

Secular Left: Socialista Argentino, Union Popular, Izquierda Unida, Movimiento al Socialismo, Autodeterminacion y Libertad, Proyecto Sur, Nuevo Encuentro

Secular C. Left: Socialista Democratico, Intransigente, Unidad Socialista, Alianza Frente Pais Solidario, Alternativa para una República de Iguales, Partido Socialista, Frente Progresista Civico y Social, Coalición Cívica, Acuerdo Civico y Social (some)

[alt: Frente para la Victoria and affiliated parties, 2010-2012]

Secular Center: Demócrata Progresista, Laborista-UCR; Junta Renovadora, UCR Bloquista, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR Intransigente, Alianza, Frente Compromiso para el Cambio, Alianza Propuesta Republicana, Acuerdo Civico y Social (some)

Secular C. Right: Movimiento de Integración y Desarrollo, Alianza Popular Federalista, Unión del Centro Democrático, Demócrata Progresista (since 1985), Confederacion Federalista Independiente, Federal, Accion por la Republica, Propuesta Republicana, Acuerdo Civico y Social (some)

Secular Right: Democrata Nacional, Liberal, Federacion de partidos de Centro, Democráta de Mendoza, Movimiento de Dignidad y Indendencia, Conservador Popular

Christian C. Left: Demócrata Cristiano

Other: Laborista, Laborista Independiente, Peronista, Defensa Provincial, Union del Pueblo Argentina, Tres Banderas, Union Popular, Movimiento Popular Pampeano, Movimiento Popular Jujeño, Justicialista, Renovador de Salta, Blanco de los Jubilados, Frente Corriente Renovadora, Movimiento Popular Fueguino, Accion Chaquena, Afirmacion Peronista, Movimiento Peronista, Alianza Fuerza Portena, Alianza Frente Nuevo, Alianza Union Cordoba, Frente Civico por Santiago, Frente Justicialista, Frente para la Victoria

Personalist: Movimiento Popular Neuquino, Autonomista de Corrientes, Autonomista Lib. De Corrientes, Bloquista de San Juan, Frente Renovador de la Concordia, Frente de Todos, Unidad Federalista

Unknown: UCR Bloquista (since 1973), Cruzada Renovadora, Liberal de Corrientes, Cruzada Renovadora (San Juan), Movimiento de Afirmacion Popular, Surgimiento Innovador, Participacion y Justicia, Frente Grande, Partido Nuevo (Frepanu), Desarrollo y Justicia, Unidad Bonaerense, Polo Social, Accion Federalista por Buenos Aires, Frente Popular Bonaerense, Frente de la Unidad
(31) Bahamas

Secular C. Left: Progressive Liberal Party

Secular C. Right: Free National Movement, Bahamian Democratic Party,
(32 )Barbados

Secular C. Left: Democratic Labour Party, Barbados Labour Party, National Democratic Party

Secular Right: Barbados National Party

(33) Belize

Secular Center: People's United Party

Secular C. Right: United Democratic Party

(34) Bolivia

Secular Left: Partido Socialista Uno, Frente de Pueblo Unido, Izquierda Unida, Movimiento Bolivia Libre, Vanguardia Socialista Boliviana, Partido Socialista, Movimiento al Socialismo

Secular C. Left: Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, Unidad Democrática y Popular, Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario, Frente de Unidad Nacional, Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario Vanguardia

Secular C. Right: Movimiento Nacionalista Pazestenssorista, Alianza del Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario Unido, Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (since 1985), Acuerdo Patriotico, Poder Democrático y Social,

Secular Right: Falange Socialista Boliviana, Partido Revolucionario Auténtico, Acción Demócratica Nacionalista

Christian C. Left: Partido Social Cristiano, Comunidad Democrática Cristiana, Partido Demócrata Cristiano

Other: Movimiento Indio Tupaj Katari, Movimiento Indio Tupaj Katari Uno, Movimiento Revolucionario Tupaj Katari de Liberación, Eje Pachakuti de Convergencia, Izquierda Unida, Movimiento Indigena Pachakuti, Alianza Social

Personalist: Frente de la Revolución Boliviana, Conciencia de Patria, Unión Cívica Solidaridad, Nueva Fuerza Republicana

Unknown: Alianza Popular de Integración Nacional, Partido de la Union Boliviana, Frente Democrático Revolucionario-Nueva Alternativa, Alianza de Renovacion Boliviana

(35) Brazil

Secular Left: Partido Comunista Brasileiro, Partido Republicano Trabalhista (1950-1960), Partido dos Trabalhadores, Partido Comiunista do Brasil, Partido Socialista Brasileiro (since 1986), Partido da Mobilizacão Nacional, Partido Popular Socialista



Secular C. Left: Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, Partido Socialista Brasileiro, Movimiento Trabalhista Renovador, Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, Partido Democrático Trabalhista, Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, Partido dos Trabalhadores (since 2002), Partido Socialismo e Libertade

Secular Center: Partido Trabalhista Nacional, Partido do Movimento, Democrático Brasileiro, Partido das Reformas Sociais, Partido Social Democrático, Partido Trabalhista do Brasil, Partido dos Aposentados da Naçao

Secular C. Right: Partido Democrático Cristão, Partido Social Democrático, União Democrática Nacional, Partido Social Trabalhista, Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (since 1984), Partido Progressista Brasileiro, Partido Social Liberal, Partido Social Trabalhista

Secular Right: Partido Liberal, Partido Popular Sindicalista, Partido Republicano, Partido de Representacão Popular (1947-1962), Alianza Renovadora Nacional, Partido Democrático Social, Partido da Frente Liberal, Partido Social Democrático, Partido de Reedificaçao da Ordem Nacional, Democratas

Christian Center: Partido Social Cristão, Partido Social Democrata Cristao, Partido Trabalhista Cristão, Partido Humanista da Solidaridade

Other: Partido Verde

Personalist: Partido Social Progressista, Partido da Reconstrucão Nacional

Unknown: Partido Renovador Progressista, Partido Republicano Brasileiro
(36) Chile

Secular Left: Partido Comunista de Chile (Partido Progresista Nacional), Partido Socialista Auténtico, Partido Socialista Chileno, Partido Socialista Popular, Partido Democrático Nacional, Partido de Izquierda Radical, Partido Radical (1973), La Izquierda Independiente, Partido Amplio de la Izquierda Socialista, Partido Humanista, Partido Radical Social Democrata

Secular C. Left: Partido Radical, Partido Radical Doctrinario, Partido por la Democracia, Partido Socialista de Chile (since 1989), Concertacion Independiente

Secular Center: Partido Radical (1961-1965), Alianza Independiente

Secular C. Right: Partido Demócrata, Democracia Radical, Movimiento Republicano, Alianza Independiente, Renovación Nacional, Partido de Acción Regionalista de Chile, Partido Regionalista de los Independientes, Coalicion por el Cambio



Secular Right: Partido Agrario, Partido Liberal, Movimiento Nacional del Pueblo, Partido Nacional, Renovación Nacional (until 1997), Unión Democrática Independiente, Alianza Independiente (until 1997),

Christian Center: Falange Nacional, Partido Demócrata Cristiano

Christian Right: Partido Conservador, Partido Conservador Tradicionalista, Partido Nacional Cristiano

Personalist: Partido Agrario Laborista, Partido Democrático del Pueblo, Movimiento Nacional Ibañista, Unión Nacional de Independientes, Partido Union de Centro Centro

Unknown: Unidad Popular, Partido del Trabajo, Unión Nacional de Independientes

(37) Colombia

Secular Left: Partido Comunista de Colombia, Union Nacional de Oposicion, Frente Democrático, Union Patriotica, Alianza Democrática M-19

Secular C. Left: Nuevo Liberalismo, Frente Popular, Movimiento Nueva Colombia, Convergencia Ciudadana, Frente Social y Politico, Movimiento Unionista, Partido Social Demócrata, Partido Unidad Democratica, Polo Democrático Alternativo

Secular Center: Partido Liberal Colombiano, Movimiento Popular Unido, Nuevo Liberalismo, Partido Colombia Demócrata, Huila nuevo y Liberalismo

Secular C. Right: Partido Social Conservador Colombiano (Antes PC: P. Conservador Col.) (since 1980), Movimiento Nacional Conservador, Conservador Humbertista, Fuerza Progresista, Liberalismo Independiente de Restauración, Movimiento de Salvación Nacional, Movimiento Unico de Renovación Conservador, Unico de Renovacion, Cambio Radical, Equipo Colombia, Movimiento Conservatismo Independiente, Movimiento Integracion Popular, Movimiento Nacional, Partido Social de Unidad Nacional, Movimiento Alas Equipo Colombia

Christian C. Left: Union Cristiana, Partido Nacional Cristiano

Christian C. Right: Partido Social Conservador Colombiano (Antes PC: P. Conservador Col.) (until 1980), Conservatismo Independiente, Movimiento Nacional Progresista, Movimiento Mira

Other: Autoridades Indigenas de Colombia, Integración Regional, Unidad Norte Vallecaucana, Alianza Social Indigena, Movimiento Huella Ciudadana, Movimiento Integración Regional, Partido Verde

Personalist: Alianza Nacional Popular, Movimiento Unitario Metapolitico (antes MUR Mov. Unitario Reginista)

Unknown: Frente por la Unidad del Pueblo, Movimiento Civico, Cívico Independiente, Renovación Democrática, Transformación, Circumscipcion Especial, Movimiento Renovacion Democratica, Independiente Frente de Esperanza, Mov. Alternativa Democratica, Movimiento Ciudadano, Movimiento Convergencia Popular Civica, Movimiento Civico Seriedad por Colombia, Movimiento Nueva Fuerza Democratica, Movimiento Participacion Ciudadana, Colombia Siempre, Movimiento Apertura Liberal, Movimiento Convergencia Popular Civica, Movimiento Pol.Comunal Y Comuni. Col., Movimiento de Participación Popular, Movimiento Republicano, Movimiento Unete Colombia, Popular Colombiano, Progresismo Democrático, Partido Vang.Moral Y Soc.Vamos Col., Renovacion Accion Laboral, Reconstrucción Democrática Nacional, Via Alterna, Voluntad Popular, Apertura Liberal, Por el País que soñamos, Partido de Acción Social, Movimiento Renovación Acción Laboral, Alternativo Liberal
(38) Costa Rica

Secular Left: Pueblo Unido, Bloque Obrero, Fuerza Democrática

Secular C. Left: Partido Social Democrata, Partido Liberacion Nacional, Acción Ciudadana (2002), Frente Amplio

Secular Center: Acción Ciudadana, Partido Liberacion Nacional (2010)

Secular C. Right: Partido Union Nacional, Partido Unidad Social Cristiano, Partido Movimiento Libertario

Secular Right: Partido Constitutional, Partido Union Nacional, Partido Demócrata

Christian C. Left: Partido Democrático Cristiano

Christian C. Right: Partido Renovacion Costarricense, Partido Unidad Social Cristiano

Other: Unión Agrícola Cartagines, Acción Democrática Alajuelense, Accion Laborista Agricola, Partido Movimiento Libertario, Accesibilidad sin Exlcusion

Personalist: Partido Republicano Nacional, Partido Demócrata, Partido Renovación Democrática

Unknown: Partido de Integracion Nacional, Partido Restoracion Nacional
(39) DominicanRep

Secular C. Left: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano, Partido de la Liberación Dominicana, Partido Revolucionario Independiente

Secular Center: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana,

Secular C. Right: Union Cívica Nacional, Partido Reformista

Secular Right: Partido Accion Constitucional

Christian C. Left: Partido Revolucionario Social Cristiano

Christian C. Right: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano

Unknown: Partido Nacionalista Revolucionario Democratico
(40) Ecuador

Secular Left: Movimiento Popular Democrático, Unión Democrática Popular, Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano, Partido Liberación Nacional, Alianza País, Partido Sociedad Patriotica 21 de Enero (since 2007)

Secular C. Left: Izquierda Democrática, Partido Demócrata, Partido del Pueblo, Red Ética y Democrática, Izquierda Democrática-Movimiento Poder Ciudadano

Secular C. Right: Coalición Institucionalista Demócrata, Frente Radical Alfarista, Una Nueva Opción, Movimiento Civico Madera de Guerrero

Secular Right: Partido Liberal Radical Ecuatoriano, Partido Social Cristiano, Partido Union Republicana,

Christian C. Left: Democracia Popular-Union Democrata Cristiana

Christian C. Right: Partido Social Cristiano (since 1996)

Christian Right: Partido Conservador Ecuatoriano

Other: Movimiento Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik - Nuevo País, Partido Socialista-Frente Amplio de Ecuador-Movimiento de Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik – Nuevo País, Movimiento Honradez Nacional, Movimiento Municipalista por la Integridad Nacional, Movimiento Independiente Obras son Amores, Movimiento Social Conservador, Movimiento Autonomico Regional, Accion Regional por la Equidad, Aliana Popular Latinoamericana, Movimiento Politico Independiente Amauta Yuyai

Personalist: Concentración de Fuerzas Populares, Federación Nacional Velasquista, Partido Nacionalista Revolucionario, Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano, Acción Popular Revolucionaria Ecuatoriana, Partido Renovador Institucional Accion Nacional, Partido Sociedad Patriotica 21 de Enero

Unknown: Pueblo, Cambio y Democracia, Alianza 2-14, Movimiento Ciudadanos Nuevo Pais, Movimiento Patria Solidaria, Partido Union Nacional UNO, Conciencia Ciudadana
(41) El Salvador

Secular Left: Partido Accion Renovadora, Movimiento Nacional Revolucionario, Union Democratica Nacionalista, Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional,

Secular C. Left: Convergencia Democratica, Cambio Democratico

Secular C. Right: Partido Accion Democratica, Gran Alianza por la Unidad Nacional

Secular Right: Partido Revolucionario de Unificacion Democratica, Partido de Conciliacion Nacional, Partido Popular Salvadoreno, Alianza Republicana Nacional, Partido Autentico Institucional Salvadoreno, Partido Liberal Democrático, Partido Acción Nacional, Partido de Conciliacion Nacional, Concertacion Nacional

Christian Left:

Christian C. Left: Partido Democrata Cristiano, Movimiento de Unidad

Christian Center: Partido Renovación Social Cristiano

Christian C. Right: Partido Democrata Cristiano (since 1985), Movimiento Autentico Cristiano, Partido de la Esperanza

Personalist: Partido Republicano de Evolución Nacional
(42) Guatemala

Secular Left: Frente Democrático Nueva Guatemala, Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, Alianza Nueva Nación, Unión Democrática (2007)

Secular C. Left: Partido Socialista Democratico, Partido Patriótico, Libertad Democratica Renovada

Secular Center: Gran Alianza Nacional, Vision con Valores

Secular C. Right: Partido Revolucionario, Partido Democratico de Cooperacion Nacional, Partido Nacional Renovador, Union del Centro Nacional, Partido de Avanzada Nacional, Partido Unionista, Compromiso Renovacion y Orden,

Secular Right: Movimiento de Liberacion Nacional, Partido Institucional Democratico, Central Autentica Nacionalista, Unión Democrática, Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (2007)

Christian C. Left: Unidad Nacional de la Esperanza, Victoria

Christian C. Right: Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca

Christian Right: Movimiento de Accion Solidaria

Personalist: Frente Republicano Guatemalteco

Other: Encuentro por Guatemala

Unknown: Partido Liberador Progresista, Desarrollo Integral Auténtico, Centro de Acción Social, Unión de Cambio Nacionalista


(43) Guyana

Secular Left: People's National Congress (1964), People's Progressive Party (1964), Working People's Alliance, Alliance for Guyana

Secular C. Left: People's National Congress, People's Progressive Party

Secular C. Right: United Force

Secular Right: United Force (1992-1997)

Unknown: Rise Organise and Rebuild Guyana, Alliance For Change
(45) Honduras

Secular Left: Partido de Unificación Democrática

Secular C. Left: Partido de Innovación y Unidad-Social Demócrata, Partido Liberal de Honduras (until 1996)

Secular Center: Partido Liberal de Honduras (since 1997)

Secular C. Right: Partido Nacional

Christian C. Left: Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Honduras
(46) Jamaica

Secular Left: People's National Party (1976-1980)



Secular C. Left: Jamaica Labour Party (1962-1970), People's National Party (since 1980)

Secular Center: Jamaica Labour Party (1972-1976)

Secular C. Right: Jamaica Labour Party (since 1980)

(47) Mexico

Secular Left: Partido Popular Socialista, Partido Comunista Mexicano, Partido Socialista Unificado de México, Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores

Secular C. Left: Partido Revolucionario Institucional (1970-1973), Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores, Partido Mexicano Socialista, Partido de la Revolución Democrática, Partido de Trabajo, Alianza por Mexico, Convergencia por la Democracia, Coalición por el Bien de Todos, Partido Alternativa Socialdemócrata y Campesina

Secular Center: Partido Revolucionario Institucional (1976-1979)

Secular C. Right: Partido Revolucionario Institucional (1961-1967 and 1980-2003), Partido Auténtico de la Revolución Mexicana, Partido del Frente Cardenista de Reconstrucción Nacional, Partido Acción Nacional, Alianza por México

Christian C. Right: Partido Acción Nacional

Christian Right: Partido Demócrata Mexicano

Other: Partido Verde Ecologista

Unknown: Frente Democrático Nacional
(48) Nicaragua

Secular Left: Movimiento de Accion Popular-Marxista Leninista, Partido Comunista de Nicaragua, Partido Socialista Nicaraguense, Movimiento de Unidad Revoluconaria, Unidad

Secular C. Left: Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional, Movimiento Renovación Sandinista

Secular Center: Union Nacional Opositora

Secular C. Right: Partido Liberal Independiente, Alianza Liberal, Partido Conservador de Nicaragua, Proyecto Nacional, Unión Nacional Opositora 96, Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense

Secular Right: Partido Conservador Demócrata de Nicaragua, Alianza Nacional Conservador, Partido Resistencia Nicaraguense

Christian C. Left: Partido Popular Social Cristiano

Christian C. Right: Partido Social Cristiano

Christian Right: Partido Camino Cristiano Nicaraguense, Partido Conservador de Nicaragua

Unknown: Partido Conservador Nicaraguense (until 1970), Partido Liberal Nacionalista (until 1970), Union Nacional Opositora (until 1970)
(49) Panama

Secular Left: Coalicion Patriotica Nacional, Union Patriotica

Secular C. Left: Partido Socialista, Mov. Papa Egoró, Partido Revolucionario Democrático (since 1994), Partido Solidaridad,

Secular Center: Cambio Democrático, Partido Solidaridad

Secular C. Right: Partido Liberal Nacional, Partido Republicano (until 1980), Tercer Partido Nacionalista, Partido Laborista Agrario, Partido Liberal Auténtico, Partido Revolucionario Democrático (1989), Partido Liberal Republicano, Partido Renovación Civilista



Secular Right: Partido Panameñista, Movimiento de Liberacion Republicano Nacional, Partido Laborista, Partido Panameñista Autentico, Movimiento de Renovación Nacional, Partido Arnulfista, Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista

Christian C. Left: Partido Popular (1964)



Christian C. Right: Partido Popular

Unknown: Partido Republicano (1984), Partido Revolucionario Democrático, Movimiento de Liberacion Nacional, Partido Dipal, Partido Progresista Nacional, Partido Resistencia Civil Liberal, Partido Renovador, Partido Accion Democratica, Partido Accion Radical, Partido Reformista Nacional, Unión Democrática Independiente
(50) Paraguay

Secular C. Left: Partido Revolucionario Febrerista, Encuentro Nacional, Partido País Solidario, Partido Liberal Radical Autentico (since 2008), Alianza Patriótica para el Cambio

Secular Center: Partido Liberal Radical Autentico,

Secular C. Right: Partido Liberal Radical (since 1989)

Secular Right: Asociación Nacional Republicana (Colorado), Unión Nacional de Ciudadanos Éticos,

Christian Center: Movimiento Patria Querida

Other: Movimiento Popular Tekojoja, Partido Democrático Progresista, Alianza Departamental Boquerón
(51) Peru

Secular Left: Izquierda Unida, Izquierda Socialista

Secular C. Left: Acción Popular, Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, Partido Aprista Peruano, Frente Nacional de Trabajadores y Campesinos, Peru al 2000, Solidaridad Nacional, GANA Peru

Secular Center: Solidaridad y Democracia, Union por el Peru (since 2001), Frente del Centro

Secular C. Right: Acción Popular (since 1980), Frente Independiente Moralizador, Convergencia Democrática, Movimiento Renovación, Avancemos, Alianza por el Futuro, Fuerza 2011, Alianza Solidaridad Nacional, Partido Aprista Peruano

Secular Right: Unión Nacional Odriista

Christian C. Left: Democracia Cristiana,

Christian C. Right: Partido Popular Cristiano, Unidad Nacional, Alianza por el Gran Cambio

Christian Right: Restauración Nacional

Personalist: Independents, Cambio 90, Movimiento Civico Nacional Obras, Union por el Peru, Peru al 2000 (since 2000), Peru Posible, Somos Peru,

Unknown: Izquierda Unida (1963), Movimiento Democrático Peruano, Movimiento Libertad, Frente Popular Agricola, Movimiento Independiente Agrario, Renacimiento Andino, Solución Popular, Todos por la Victoria
(52) Suriname

Secular C. Left: Progressieve Arbeiders en Landbouwers Unie, Pendawa Lima, Democratisch Alternatief '91, Progressieve Ontwikkelings Alliantie, Democratisch Nationaal Platform 2000, Politieke Vleugel van de FAL, Volksalliantie Voor Vooruitgang, A-1

Secular C. Right: Nationale Partij Suriname, Verenigde Hindoe Partij, Nieuw Front voor Democratie en Ontwikkeling, Pendawa Lima (since 1996), Pertjajah Luhur, Surinaamse Partij van de Arbeid,

Christian C. Left: Progressieve Surinaamse Volkspartij

Other: Kaum Tani Persuatan Indonesia

Personalist: Nationale Democratische Partij, Millenium Combinatie, Mega Combinatie

Unknown: Sarikat Rakyat Indonesia, A-Combinatie, Democratie en Ontwikkeling
(53) Trinidad y Tobago

Secular C. Left: Democratic Labour Party, People's National Movement, United Labour Front, United National Congress

Secular Center: National Alliance for Reconstruction

Other: Democratic Action Congress
(54) Uruguay

Secular Left: Partido Comunista Uruguayo, Partido Socialista, Frente Izquierda de Liberación, Frente Amplio (until 1994),

Secular C. Left: Partido Colorado (from 1942 to 1966), Frente Amplio-Encuentro Progresista-Nueva Mayoría

Secular Center: Partido Nacional Independiente, Partido Colorado (from 1971 to 1999), Nuevo Espacio, Encuentro Progresista,

Secular C. Right: Partido Nacional

Christian C. Left: Partido Demócrata Cristiano, Partido Independiente

Christian C. Right: Unión Cívica

Unknown: Unión Democrática Reformista, Frente Amplio (1962)
(55) Venezuela

Secular Left: Partido Comunista Venezolano, Unión para Avanzar, Movimiento al Socialismo (until 1988), Movimiento Izquierda Revolucionario, Liga Socialista, Vanguardía Unitaria Comunista, Nueva Alternativa, La Causa Radical, Movimiento Quinta Republica (since 2005), Partido Socialista Unido

Secular C. Left: Acción Democrática, Unión Republicana Democrática, Acción Democrática Oposición, Frente Democrático Popular, Movimiento Electoral Nacional Independiente, Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo, Partido Revolucionario Integración Nacionalista, La Causa Radical, Movimiento al Socialismo (since 1990), Patria Para Todos, Por la democracia social, Unidad Popular Venezolana,

Secular Center: Alianza Bravo Pueblo, Mesa de la Unidad Democratica

Secular C. Right: Independientes Pro Frente Nacional, Partido Socialista de Venezuela, Frente Nacional Democrático, Nueva Generación Democrática, Apertura y Participación Nacional, Renovación, Movimiento Primero Justicia

Secular Right: Movimiento de Acción Nacional

Christian C. Right: Comité de Organización Política Electoral Independiente (since 1950), Organización Renovadora Auténtica, Proyecto Venezuela

Christian Right: Comité de Organización Política Electoral Independiente (1947), Unión Federal Republicano

Personalist: Cruzada Cívica Nacionalista, Opinión Nacional, Causa Común, Movimiento Integración Nacional, FORMULA 1, Convergencia Nacional, Integración, Renovación y Nueva Esperanza, Movimiento Quinta Republica (1998 and 2000), Proyecto Venezuela, Lo Alcanzado por Yaracuy, Movimiento Independiente Ganamos Todos

Other: Consejo Nacional Indio de Venezuela, Pueblo Unido Multietnico de Amazonas, Movimiento Unido de Pueblos Indígenas

Unknown: Partido Nacional Integracionista, Movimiento Solidaridad Independiente, Unidad por los Derechos Humanos, LAGO, MIGENTE, Frente Independiente Organizado por Portuguesa, Abre Brecha



January 20, 2016


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