Making nouns plural



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FINAL EXAM GRAMMAR NOTES Español II- Callahan




    1. MASCULINE vs. FEMININE

All nouns in Spanish have GENDER



EXCEPTIONS:

el día the day la clase the class

el mapa the map la mano the hand

el agua the water





MAKING NOUNS PLURAL

If a noun ends in a VOWEL ADD -S (ex.) el libro los libros

If a noun ends in a CONSONANT ADD -ES (ex.) la lección las lecciones
**Use the MASCULINE PLURAL to refer to a group that includes both males and females.

un muchacho + una muchacha = unos muchachos



LOS ARTÍCULOS

Definite Articles “THE”= el, la, los, las

Indefinite Articles “A/AN”= un, una, unos, unas
**Articles MUST agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify

la computadora unos libros

1.2 NUMBERS 0-30

**UNO (and numbers ending in –UNO) have more than one form:
drop the –o on the masculine form if the noun that comes after it is masculine:

un lápiz  veintiún lapices


use a feminine form if the NOUN that comes after it is feminine:

una chica veintiuna chicas


1.3 PRESENT TENSE OF SER
SUBJECT PRONOUNS: These word can be used as the SUBJECT or can REPLACE the subject of your sentence:

There is more than one way to say “YOU” in Spanish:

tú and usted—> YOU vosotros and ustedes—> YOU ALL


** TÚ and VOSOTROS/AS are INFORMAL (friends and family) **Vosotros is only used in SPAIN**

  • USTED and USTEDES are FORMAL (someone you don’t know very well or to whom you want to show respect.)


“SER” is used for:

1. Permanent characteristics/ traits

2. Express the origin or nationality of someone/something

3. Talk about someone’s profession

4. Time

1.4 TELLING TIME
To ask what time it is, say: ¿Qué hora es?
To say “it is” when telling time, use: Es la una./ Son las ..(dos, tres, cuatro).

To ask what time something is going to take place, say: ¿A qué hora…?


To state what time something takes place, use: A la una./ A las …(dos, tres, cuatro).

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2.1 PRESENT TENSE OF AR VERBS:
To conjugate a verb in the present tense:

1.) Start with the infinitive : CANTAR

2.) Take off the ending (-AR): CANT <— This is called the stem!

3.) Add the present tense AR verb endings to the stem.


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EL VERBO GUSTAR: It is NOT conjugated like the regular AR verbs. Let’s take a look:
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2.2 FORMING QUESTIONS IN SPANISH
There are 3 ways to form a yes/no question in Spanish:
1.) Simply raised the intonation of your voice at the end of a statement:

Juan trabaja en la escuela.



EX: ¿Juan trabaja en la escuela?
2.) Add the tags ¿NO? or ¿verdad? to the end of a statement.

Juan trabaja en la escuela.



EX: Juan trabaja en la escuela, ¿no?
3.) Switch the SUBJECT and the VERB order.

Juan trabaja en la escuela.

S. V.


EX: ¿Trabaja Juan en la escuela?

V. S.



When you are looking for other information rather than just a YES/NO answer, use an interrogative:

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At times, answering a question in Spanish will require a change of the verb (because the subject of the answer is different than the subject of the question. Follow these guidelines when answering questions:


If the question is in the …. form…


The answer will be in the … form.




If the question is in the …. form…

The answer will be in the … form.

YO 

TÚ/UD




NOSOTROS 

VOSOTROS/UDS.

TÚ 

YO




VOSOTROS 

NOSOTROS

ÉL/ELLA 

ÉL/ELLA




ELLOS/ELLAS 

ELLOS/ELLAS

UD. 

YO




UDS. 

NOSOTROS



2.3 PRESENT TENSE of ESTAR


ESTAR – to be

Estoy

I am

Estamos

We are

Estás

You are

Estáis

Y’all are

Está

He/She/You are

Están

They/You all are



ESTAR” is used to:

1. Location

2. Temporary conditions

3. Emotion/ Health



** REMEMBER: HOW YOU FEEL AND WHERE YOU ARE, ALWAYS USE THE VERB ESTAR!**

ESTAR is often used with prepositions to describe the location of a person or an object:
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2.4 Los Números 31+


200

Doscientos

300

Trescientos

400

Cuatrocientos

500

Quinientos

600

Seiscientos

700

Setecientos

800

Ochocientos

900

Novecientos

1,000

mil

2,000

Dos mil

5,000

cinco mil

100,000

cien mil

500,000

quinientos mil

1,000,000

un millón (de)

Para expresar un número más de 30:
30- Treinta

40- Cuarenta

50- Cincuenta y uno, y dos, y tres, etc…

60- Sesenta

70-Setenta

80- Ochenta

90-Noventa

100- Cien/ciento


** Use cien (100) if the number is exactly 100. (EX: Tengo cien primas.)

** If it is over 100, use ciento (EX: Tengo ciento veinte primos.)

3.1 DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES
** Adjectives must agree in GENDER and NUMBER with the noun the modify!

EX: La muchacha es bonita. (all fem./ pl.)

El bolígrafo es amarillo. (all masc./s.)

Los alumnos son inteligentes. (all masc./pl.)
** Adjectives are placed after the noun the modify!

EX: the white t-shirt some yellow bananas

La camiseta blanca Unas bananas amarillas



3.2 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
** Possessive adjectives, like all other adjectives agree with the noun that they modify. They agree with WHAT is being possessed (not with who possesses it.)

EX: Luisa es la nieta de Fran y Susana. Es su nieta. (Singular because nieta is singular.)

Luisa y Sara son las nietas de Fran. Son sus nietas (Plural because nietas is plural.)




POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

Mi/Mis

my

Nuestro/a/os/as

Our

Tu/Tus

your

Vuestro/a/os/as

Y’’all’s

Su/Sus

his/her/your

su/sus

their/your



3.3 ER/IR VERBS

To conjugate an ER/IR verb in the present tense:

1.) Start with the infinitive : BEBER

2.) Take off the ending (-ER/ -IR): BEB <— This is called the stem!

3.) Add the present tense ER/ IR verb endings to the stem.
VERBOS ER VERBOS IR

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3.4 TENER/ VENIR


TENER: to have

(e-ie SCV with irregular YO form)







VENIR: to come

(e-ie SCV with irregular YO form)



Tengo

Tenemos




Vengo

Venimos

Tienes

Tenéis




Vienes

Venís

Tiene

Tienen




Viene

Vienen


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4.1 El Verbo IR


IR: to go

(irregular verb)




Voy

Vamos

vas

vais

va

van

Typically used with the word: A (to)


A + EL  AL
Use: IR + A + INFINITIVE to say what you are going to do.

EX: Yo voy al museo. I am going to the museum.
Yo voy a ir al museo. I am going to go to the museum.

4.2 VERBOS de BOTA (STEM CHANGING VERBS) (O-UE, E-IE)
O-UE


Verbos AR

Verbos ER

Verbos IR

Almorzar

Contar


Costar

Encontrar

Jugar (U-UE)+ al ***

Mostrar


Recordar

Poder

Volver


Morir

Dormir



E-IE


Verbos AR

Verbos ER

Verbos IR

Cerrar

Comenzar


Empezar

Pensar


Merendar

Entender

Perder


Querer (+ inf)

Tener**



Preferir (+ inf)

Venir **



Contar (O-UE) http://dclips.fundraw.com/pngmax/jicjac_boot.png


Nosotros contamos

cuentas

Yo cuento




Vosotros costáis



Él/ella Ud. cuenta

Ellos/as cuestan

**Verbos de cambio radical NO tienen cambian de raíz en las formas NOSOTROS/VOSOTROS


** Con el verbo JUGAR, tenemos que usar la palabra A antes del deporte a que jugamos
** Como mucho de los deportivos son masculinos (la mayoría), A+EL = AL

EX: Yo juego al fútbol. / Mis amigos juegan al hockey.




4.3 VERBOS de BOTA (STEM CHANGING VERBS) (E-I)


Verbos IR

Conseguir*_______________ Pedir _________________

Decir*__________________ Servir_________________

Repetir________________ Seguir*_________________




4.4 YO CHANGERS
Here are some verbs you know with irregular YO forms:
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5.1- ESTAR + Adjectives
ESTAR ** How you feel and where you are, always use the verb ESTAR!**


Yo

estoy

Nosotros

estamos



estás

Vosotros

estáis

Él/ella

Ud.


está

Ellos/as

Uds.


están


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5.2- PRESENTE PROGRESIVO—WE DID NOT DO THIS PART OF THE CHAPTER!!
5.3- SER vs. ESTAR
SER ESTARmacintosh hd:users:laura.callahan:desktop:screen shot 2016-05-26 at 8.09.44 am.pngmacintosh hd:users:laura.callahan:desktop:screen shot 2016-05-26 at 8.10.15 am.pngmacintosh hd:users:laura.callahan:desktop:screen shot 2016-05-26 at 8.10.05 am.pngmacintosh hd:users:laura.callahan:desktop:screen shot 2016-05-26 at 8.09.33 am.png

5.4- Direct Object Pronounsmacintosh hd:users:laura.callahan:desktop:screen shot 2016-05-26 at 8.16.17 am.png
Direct object pronouns REPLACE the direct object of the sentence.
The direct object of the sentence is found by going to the verb and asking WHO or WHAT is getting VERBED.

EX. I eat chocolate. What do I eat? CHOCOLATE. Chocolate is the DO.

We are going to visit Paula. Who are we going to visit? PAULA. Paula is the DO.


Placement of DOPs:

ALL pronouns in Spanish can go:


1.) Before the conjugated verb:

EX: Yo como el chocolate.  Yo lo como.

or
2.) Attached to the infinitive:



EX: Nosotros vamos a visitar a Paula.  Nosotros vamos a visitarla. o Nosotros la vamos a visitar.

6.1 SABER vs. CONOCER


SABER: to know

(fact, how to do something)




CONOCER: to know

(be familiar with a person/place)



sabemos




conozco

conocemos

sabes

sabéis




conoces

conocéis

sabe

saben




conoce

conocen


Los usos de SABER: Los usos de CONOCER:

  1. A simple fact 1.) A person

EX: Yo no sé la respuesta. EX: Él conoce a la señora.

I don’t know the answer. He knows the woman.

  1. A piece of information 2.) A broad topic/concept

(sometimes used with “que”) (not a simple fact!!)

EX: Tú sabes que la prueba EX: Ella conoce el arte italiano.

va a ser difícil. She knows Italian art.



You know that the quiz is

going to be hard. NOTA IMPORTANTE: Don’t forget that

  1. How to do something (+INF.) when your DO is a person, you must use a

EX: Ellos no saben bailar la salsa personal A!! Uds. conocen a María.

They don’t know how to dance salsa.
6.2- INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS:
The indirect object tells us where the direct object is going.
We find the indirect direct object by asking the questions to whom/for whom or to what/for what?
Indirect object pronouns can either accompany or stand alone. However, when there is an indirect object in a sentence, whether states or implied, an indirect object pronoun is NOT OPTIONAL!!

EX: Yo no quiero decirle mentiras a mi madre. ** accompany**

i.o.p. i.o.



I don’t want to tell my mother lies.
EX: Yo no quiero decirle mentiras. ** IOP standing alone**

i.o.p.
I don’t want to tell her lies.


Here are the IOPs:

me

nos

te

os

le (se)

les (se)


Placement of IOPs:

Like DOPs, IOPs in Spanish can go:


1.) Before the conjugated verb:

EX: Yo le presto mi lápiz a Luisa.  Yo le presto mi lápiz.

or
2.) Attached to the infinitive:



EX: Vamos a prestarle los lápices a Luisa.  Vamos a prestarle los lápices.

o Le vamos a prestar los lápices.



6.3 EL PRETÉRITO DE LOS VERBOS REGULARES:
The preterit tense is to describe a completed action in the past tense.
To form the preterit of AR verbs, start with the infinitive of the verb, drop the –AR, and add:

CAR/GAR/ZAR verbs: Verbs that end in –CAR, -GAR, -ZAR have a special spelling chance in the *yo* form only:

-car qué -gar gué -zar cé



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To form the preterit of ER/IR verbs, start with the infinitive of the verb, drop the –ER/IR, and add:




ER/IR verbs with a stem ending in vowel:

Change “I” ”Y” in the third person, and all other forms have accents on the “I”



(Leer, creer, oír)

OÍR:

oí oímos

oíste oísteis

oyó oyeron




-í -imos

-iste -isteis

-ió -ieron


6.4: DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
Demonstrative adjectives DEMONSTRATE or POINT OUT nouns.
Like ALL OTHER Spanish adjectives, they will agree in gender and number with the noun that they are modifying.


** This and these have the T’s!**


SINGULAR




PLURAL

masculine

femenina




masculine

femenina

este

esta




estos

estas

this, these

ese

esa




esos

esas

that, those

aquel

aquella




aquellos

aquellas

that, those (over there)


Este/esta/estos/estas: point out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener.

Ese/esa/esos/esas: point out nouns that are not close to the speaker (may be close to listener.)

Aquel/aquella/aquellos/aquellas: point out nouns that are far away from the speaker and the listener.


Demonstrative PRONOUNS are identical to the demonstrative adjectives, except the first “E” has an accent and they are used without a noun to say “this one, that one, these ones, etc.”



SINGULAR




PLURAL

masculine

femenina




masculine

femenina

éste

ésta




éstos

éstas

this one, these ones

ése

ésa




ésos

ésas

that one, those ones

aquél

aquélla




aquéllos

aquéllas

that one, those ones

(over there)



7.1- REFLEXIVE VERBS:
Reflexive verbs are used when the subject is DOING and RECEIVING the action (someone is doing something to or for themself).

The pronoun “SE” is attached to the infinitive of reflexive verbs. When the verb is conjugated and reflexive, you MUST use a reflexive pronoun, and the verb form and pronoun you use will agree with the SUBJECT of the sentence.


Here are the REFLEXIVE pronouns:

me

nos

te

os

se

se

EX: Mi padre se afeita todos los días.

EX: Nosotros nos bañamos después de nadar.

Placement of reflexive pronouns: Reflexive pronouns follow the same rules as DOPs/IOPs. They can go before a conjugated verb or attached to an infinitive.
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7.2: INDEFINITE AND NEGATIVE WORDS
Indefinite and negative words refer to people and things that are not specific. In Spanish the indefinite words have corresponding negative words, which are opposite in meaning.
Negative words can be placed either before the verb or after the verb. However if they are after the verb, you must make the verb negative with the word NO.
EX: Nunca como el pescado. / No como el pescado nunca.
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7.3: El Pretérito de SER/IR


SER/IR

fui

fuimos

fuiste

fuisteis

fue

fueron



7.4: VERBS LIKE GUSTAR
Constructions with GUSTAR and verbs like gustar do not have an exact translation in English.

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All of these verbs MUST HAVE an IOP!!
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EX: A los estudiantes les molestan los exámenes. (The students are bothered by tests.)



clarifying phrase i.o.p verbo subject of verb

(gives more info about IOP) (tells you who (based on the (dictates verb form)

likes it) subject of verb)

8.1: PRETERIT OF IR-STEM CHANGING VERBS
AR and ER verbs that stem change in the present tense DO NOT stem change in the preterit.
IR verbs that stem change in the present tense DO stem change in the preterit, but only in the 3rd person singular and plural (the basement forms.) NOTE that the stem changes in the preterit are not always the same as the stem changes in the present tense: (O-U or E-I)

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INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

PRETERIT TENSE

MORIR

o-ue MUERE

o-u MURIÓ

DORMIR(SE)

o-ue (SE) DUERME

o-u (SE) DURMIÓ










PREFERIR

e-ie PREFIERE

e-i PREFIRIÓ

VENIR

e-ie VIENE

e-i VINO (IRREG)

SENTIR(SE)

e-ie (SE) SIENTE

e-i (SE) SINTIÓ










DECIR

e-i DICE

e-i DIJO (IRREG)

PEDIR

e-i PIDE

e-i PIDIÓ

REPETIR

e-i REPITE

e-i REPITIÓ

SERVIR

e-i SIRVE

e-i SIRVIÓ

CONSEGUIR

e-i CONSIGUE

e-i CONSIGUIÓ

SEGUIR

e-i SIGUE

e-i SIGUIÓ

VESTIRSE

e-i (SE) VISTE

e-i (SE) VISTIÓ

DESPEDIRSE

e-i (SE) DESPIDE

e-i (SE) DESPIDIÓ


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HERE are some IR stem changing verbs you know:

8.2: DOUBLE OBJECT PRONOUNS
In Spanish, reflexive, indirect, and direct object pronouns can be used together in the same sentence.
When we use two pronouns in the same sentence, they will always be TOGETHER and the order will be REFLEXIVE or INDIRECT object pronoun followed by the DIRECT object pronoun (RID).

EX: Yo te voy a comprar un anillo de plata (a ti).  Te lo voy a comprar.

IOP DO IO IOP DOP


When you have both a DOP and IOP in a sentence, you may NOT have “LE/LES” followed by “LO/LA/LOS/LAS”. This is called the LELO rule, and it is UNACCEPTABLE!!!
EX: Héctor le da el anillo a Estefanía.  Héctor le lo da a Estefanía. ¡¡NOOO!!

 Héctor se lo da a Estefanía. ¡¡Sí!!


8.3: COMPARATIVES – are used to indicate which of two people or things has a lesser, equal, or greater degree of quality.

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EX: Manolo no es más grande que su hermano. Manolo isn’t bigger than his brother.

Yo no quiero dormir menos de nueve horas. I don’t want to sleep less than nine hours.
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EX: Tú estás tan contenta como yo. You are as happy as I am.

Beatríz juega al fútbol tanto como estudia el español. Beatriz plays soccer as much as she studies Spanish.


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8.4: SUPERLATIVES- are used to express the highest or lowest degree of quality.
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EX: Las profesoras de español son las mejores. Spanish teachers are the best.

Nicolás es el chico menos guapo del grupo. Nick is the least handsome of the group.


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