B2. ESTRATEGIAS DE SUPERVIVIENCIA
“It’s no easy for girls...”, “If you don’t do it you will die for hungry...”.
How did you survive during the trip?
- I don't have boyfriend, but later, (…) everybody wanted to beat me, they tell me why you don't want to have boyfriend, they will kill me, (…) then I was friend of one man there, (…) because of protection.. that is how, is that man money, I used to cross the Morocco…, I come to Spain (...) He paid for me, then I enter (...) because I was dating him, because I was his girlfriend…
- (in Morocco) Sitting in the house and begging for money, you come out in the morning, you cover your body and begging for money… if you don't do it you will die for hungry...
- Because I have baby, is very easy for a mama baby to enter. Because of my baby’s birth, because of my baby, it was more easy with baby to enter… I know that some people pay little money for them to cross, but me I don't pay…
- (in Libya)…It's very hard, more than Europe… People from there… they are bad, Morocco, Arab… you cover your head, everything… they will carry you like that. It's not Europe where you naked your body, no, they will see your face, they will carry you, you can come to stay outside the room, if they want to... they will knock, they will enter they ask... if you reach there, they will carry you... if you don't do prostitution you don't have food, you don't have anything, you decide to do prostitution...
- (in Morocco) I come out with some group of people, you know, when you come out alone, you go out alone it's easier for the people to kidnap, maybe you come out with 5 or 6 people it's more difficult for people to kidnap…
- If you don't have money, you look for one to take you here, and there you pay the price
Las estrategias de supervivencia emprendidas ponen de relieve las especificidades de género en torno a la migración. La situación de transito y la necesidad extrema de sobrevivencia, asociada a los factores género, etnia y raza, conlleva una enorme vulnerabilidad para las mujeres.
En el período de estada en Marruecos e incluso en el momento del cruce, la figura masculina surge como ente salvador, ya que se entiende que tener un novio funciona como factor de protección en una sociedad patriarcal. En algunos de los casos es quién paga el viaje hacia España.
Las mujeres son igualmente conscientes que ser madre o quedarse embarazada disminuirá la cuantía que tendrán que disponer en el momento del cruce. Moverse en grupo, con otras personas, es visto como un factor preventivo hacia la perpetuación de violencias, como sea, por ejemplo el rapto.
Pedir limosna en lugares públicos (hacer salamalekum) es muchas veces la única forma de garantizar la subsistencia. Encontrar alguién y asumir un “price” a pagar por el cruce hacia España, opera cómo mecanismo de supervivencia, a la vez que de esperanza en poner fin a las situaciones de extrema violencia vividas en Marruecos.
En determinados momentos del trayecto migratorio, por ejemplo en Libia, el ejercicio de la prostitución es una decisión impuesta por las contingencias, ya que obedece a una necesidad de mantenerse viva en un escenario de una presencia masculina amenazadora: “if you don't do prostitution you don't have food, you don't have anything”.
“…They will choose to one boy...and tomorrow they will take other girls”.
- (...) one of my girlfriend, we go together (...) I left her in Morocco dessert, but I don't know (...) she is very tired, she said she cannot walk, then the rest people were telling me "come come let's go", we cannot wait for her, let's go, I was crying, I left her, I don't know if she survive, she died, I don't know... dessert, no food, nothing, nothing to eat, that place is very difficult (...) is very dangerous. (...) Maybe, people, compañeros (...) like we are travelling together or maybe we are coming, the people we meet there, they can be dangerous to us...If you do anything bad, they will beat you (...) They rape women, they beat you, they do everything, rubbish to you. You cannot do anything because is the dessert, is the journey, if you talk they will kill you.
- [DESIERTO]... because you'll eat shit.. you eat.. you drink piss.. you.. please.. it's not every time I want to think about it, because.. most of them, because of the food.. they're not alive.. because they cannot stay...
- [DESIERTO]...rape…I cannot say this is true, because.. they will command you.. you do it.. because if you don't do it you are going to be beaten, beat.
- (Morocco)... they try to sell, they try to take you, put you in rooms, and...(...)I was staying in one ghetto, is a ghetto, is one house, everybody is sleeping in the ground, we eat once in the day...
- in morocco, "Magnaia", it's another state, before morocco. you understand me? because a lot of people.. attack girls.. you understand me? because they already, they would come girls to.. want to go and meet the girl. they would use us.. the girl anyhow... 'cause they want to rape...
- When you got to Morocco, the people in the night, in the night when you are sleeping, the people come and tap you, they will choose you to one boy, and tomorrow they will take other girls, so they make like that. In the Morocco there is no prevention, we don't have money to buy condoms, no prevention, so... every night with different girls, one person today he can go with this, tomorrow he can go with this, tomorrow he can go with this, they are many... (...) The boys can kill some girls, when he refuse.. when they bit him, sometimes boys can (**) when you refuse.
- (Morocco) the police people will not see us... Because they see you and later carry you to the jail, they put them in prison... Because they don't like to see people, they put them in prison, later they take me to the desert, they drop you there, and in the end we will die there.
Las mujeres verbalizan las diferentes formas de violencia vividas al largo del trayecto; el hambre, la sed, la muerte. La travesía del desierto es un momento asociado al sufrimiento físico y psicológico extremos: “if you talk they will kill you”.
No obstante, es la violencia sexual durante el período de estada en Marruecos, lo que más se evidencia de sus relatos. La aglomeración de mujeres en espacios definidos por algunas de ellas cómo “guethos”, facilita el acceso a los agresores y la reiteración de la violencia. La no utilización de métodos preventivos y el cambio constante de víctima, expone estas mujeres a un elevado riesgo de contraer enfermedades de transmisión sexual, además de embarazos resultantes de la violencia sexual.
La condescendencia policial hace también parte de esta normalización de la violencia. Además, la policía es vista por las mujeres como uno agresor más. Podemos así decir que en todo el trayecto migratorio, pero principalmente el paso por Marruecos, se da una violación constante a los derechos humanos de éstas mujeres.
C: Vida en España
C1. DESPLAZAMIENTOS EN EL TERRITORIO
“After I come to this side, to Barcelona”.
- And, from Tenerife, Where did you go? I go to Malaga.... And then where did you go? After I come to this side, to Barcelona.
- Yes, I’ve a friend in Madrid, say I go to Asilo, I said I like to come to Barcelona... Why did you go to Barcelona? Because Madrid, police deport us too much, there’s no money, there it’s very difficult in Madrid, so people told me that Barcelona is very nice place.
- Did you lived in some other places of Spain? no... I mean, Before I go to interview to Madrid, I only go to Andalucia, no, Sevilla.... Why do you like Barcelona? well, because, I have free movement if I want to move, It I want to walk to anywhere I can walk in any streets, so that’s why I don’t want to change to other place.
- I was staying in Madrid with one boy, they gave one paper to work, after three months I should come.
- Why did you decided to go to Barcelona? After Ceuta, where did you go? It was Barcelona
A partir de su entrada que suele ser por Las Palmas, Almería, Málaga, Ceuta y Melilla ellas ya se dirigen preferentemente a Barcelona, aunque transiten por Madrid. Algunas de ellas si que han estado en Madrid, o han vivido allí, sobre todo aquellas que cuando entraron a España iniciaron su solicitud de Asilo. Pero ellas encuentran que allí hay demasiada policía, y sienten de forma más aguda el riesgo de repatriación y les es difícil trabajar en la calle, y viajan a Barcelona.
“(…But you never though about prostitution...?) No, here I will know, for me I tell myself anyhow, I will get money, when that prostitution... for now is the only way because some of girls don’t have papers, they don’t have nothing, so...”.
- “When I arrived here in Barcelona, I stayed in the street 5 days, I see one girl, I explain to him but the girl say he cannot help me, he doesn’t have money, but he can bring me to the place that I can work then i would have money”
- “I don’t want her to know that I’m a prostitute”, “you have to be careful about this job... because there is a lot of sickness, for me i don’t want to contact any sickness because of money...”
- “but you never though about prostitution...? No, here I will know, for me I tell myself anyhow, I will get money, when that prostitution... for now is the only way because some of girls don’t have papers, they don’t have nothing, so...”
- “actually if i watch the tv I will be sad, I would like to be happy sometimes. I’d just be playing music to be happy, I don’t have friends” “And the people who are living in the same house? yes ¿Who are them?¿Nigerian? They are Nigerian ¿Do you have good relation with them? No, the most I give them my money ¿Do you have friends in Spain? No I don’t have friends” “I don’t have friends in Spain. I feel alone”
- Uff... I can’t eat, now is very difficult, before it was good, but now I can’t even get 20€... Yes , you know there’s a lot of police now, all the old clients they are afraid of the police, so they are not coming, so they are afraid of the street, you know if client is not coming here you can’t work”.
- Has trabajado alguna vez en un club? Si en Barcelona, ¿Y como es? muy mal por los clientes, los box... ¿te tratan mal? a veces. ¿te han forzado para estar con clientes? Si. Aunque no quieres tienes que estar con ellos. ¿quieren que lo hagas sin condon? Si lo piden si y si no lo haces te despiden del club.
- And what did you do? I’m doing somebody’s hair and if my sister want to do hair, they will call me... come and do this lady hair...
- She called me and say you are in Europe? I say I’m in Europe, she said ok, come to vic to come and work, I want to Vic to go and work. And what work? trabaja fábrica.
- How long did you work? in which places di you work when you had the yellow card? I work in Bellvitge Hospital, ¿Cleaning? yes, and I work in... but this one is to cuidar abuelos
-“have you ever work in a club? yes ¿ and how is ti? It’s not very ok, but i prefer it more than the street ¿really?¿why? because in the streets maybe sometimes your’re standing and some men those that is drunk, they will put spit on you... and in the club it’s not like that. ¿but in the club, they sometimes take drugs, isn’t it? yes, they take drugs but they don’t hit the woman like in the street...”
Algunas de ellas cuando la crisis no era tan severa, habían trabajado en alguna fábrica, cuidando algún anciano, en alguna peluquería o en alguna empresa de limpieza. Algunas lo han podido hacer de forma legal, gracias a que la solicitud de asilo te permite la residencia y el trabajo. En estos trabajos, no pueden pagar la deuda de forma tan rápida o bien no pueden hacer frente a todos sus gastos, que en la gran mayoría son, pagar un alquiler de su habitación mantener un hijo/a aquí y/o en Nigeria, enviar dinero a su familia, pagar los gastos del colegio, pagar agua y luz, pagar su deuda, si alguien de su familia en Nigeria se enferma va a tener que mandar dinero para el hospital. La gran mayoría de ella no cuenta con un soporte masculino.
En la actualidad encontrar un trabajo para ellas es muy complicado, empezando por su situación en la mayoría de los casos administrativa irregular, le sigue el factor inmigrante y desconocimiento de la lengua. El trabajo sexual les permite poder pagar sus necesidades y las de sus hijos, en momentos en que no tienen trabajo formal.
El ejercicio de la prostitución en la mayoría de los casos lo viven como una deshonra. Muchas de ellas nunca se hubieran imaginado ejerciendo la prostitución en extrañas ocasiones ejercen el trabajo sexual en clubs, normalmente disponen de su tiempo.
Las violencias que sufren las chicas en la calle están muy silenciadas, uno de los motivos de esta violencia es que en muchos casos ellas no la identifican, no identifican cuando un cliente les roba el dinero que ya les había pagado, ellas piensan que el dinero era de él. Es muy difícil que ellas verbalicen una violencia, supongo que el hecho de tener que explicar la situación en la que se encontraban en el momento en el que se produce la violencia las avergüenza.
C3. VÍNCULOS AFECTIVOS Y SITUACIÓN FAMILIAR
“I stay alone…”, “I live with my baby...”, “They’re my sisters… they are my sisters I can’t leave them…”.
- Who do you live with? I live alone. ¿But you live alone in your room? In my room, the house is from somebody, so my country… I have one room there
- With who do you live? I stay alone ¿in your room? No, I stay with Ghana
- (And... do you have problems with him... to maintain him? with the money? with the place you stay?) hum... I have problem because... If I don’t have money is very difficult for me... to buy something for her... you understand me? for the school... they told me to come and... my some books...¿who do you live with? I live with my baby... we share the flat with Nigerian.
- Who do you live with? I carry my room
- that’s why I came here... now i started to receive her, her call, but I don’t give her money. But I know is my mother, my family, of my father, they told me is my mother
-Is she (mother) happy because you are in Spain? Because she is happy, because I send her money, now she eat, she is doing fine, and I say her that I’m looking for paper, she is happy for me to see paper
- “are they asking money, your family? yeah... they call, but I can’t help them because they’re my sisters’ they are my sisters I can’t leave them” “Do you know which sickness? I don’t know, she call me “I’m sick”, when I call her”not feeling well she need medicine” I said, if I have anything that will help you, but no, I don’t have. When I buy medicine, make it maybe your body will be ok. The next week they call me that she died. For me , if I have money I help my sister that’s what we do in Nigeria, you can’t leave your sister suffering but, if I dan’t have I cannot help, and when I have I can help my sister and my brother. “why did you call your father? I have called because my father, I know when I have a call, he don’t treat me like daughter, he don’t have my* He do anything to help me, but I have forgive her because he is my father...”
- yes I have contact with my family ¿how? by call ¿Do you send them money? I don’t have money, I want to send them money. Before when everything was good I send money, little, but since getting to years now, I’ve not set any money to them
La mayoría de ellas son menores de 30 años, y tienen hijos, en España y/o en Nigeria. Mantienen contacto con su familia en el país de origen, la mayoría de ellas refiere que durante el transcurso de viaje no se puso en contacto con su familia, sino que fue cuando llegaron a Marruecos o en España. En la mayoría de los casos ellas son el único miembro de la familia que se ha escapado de su país, en algunos casos han escapado por ser repudiadas por su familia, aún así ellas cuando llegan a España, llaman a su familia, no pueden romper el vínculo, cuando la familia sabe que ellas están en Europa la relación mejora, y les piden dinero, por que realmente lo necesitan, ya que en los casos de matrimonio forzoso era el dinero el motivo de la rotura del vinculo familiar.
Todas ellas envían normalmente un remanente mensual de 50€ a sus familias. Viven en habitaciones compartiéndolas con sus hijos, y compartiendo el resto del piso con otras familias. Pero cuando les preguntas con quien viven, siempre dicen que viven solas, aunque luego te explican que hay mas habitaciones en la casa y allí vive más gente. Normalmente comparten el piso con gente de Nigeria o Ghana, aunque compartan piso no comparten las vivencias, no explican sus temores, no saben a que se dedica la gente que vive en el mismo piso que ellas, nunca se refieren a la gente con quien viven como gente que las ayuda. Muchas de ellas se sienten solas.
Cuando salen a trabajar la mayoría de ellas deja a sus hijos con alguien, nunca explican más sobre la persona a quien dejan su hijo/a, en pocos casos se trata de una amiga a quien no tienen que pagarle el favor, muchas veces se trata de una persona quien se dedica a cuidar a otros niños/as también. La situación económica actual de todas ellas es muy precaria.
“I think good about my future (…) to work”.
- Buff I think good about my future, I think good. My future I wan, I always pray to God that before I will complete 5 years in Europe I want to stop this job, I want my future be good, not for bad. I want to have money, and I want to go back to school again.
- I want to learn... I want to do fábrica, work, see my money every month, that is what I want to do
- My future... I have to take off my family; I want to have my own children, so I can go out of the street.
- Nice job, to live nice, to be happy.
- If I have my paper, i will find a job, I will work.
- I just like to work, look for money I will go back to Nigeria, because I’m very tired here, here I suffer so much, I don’t know why, so when I look for a work I get some money, I will go back to Africa.
- I believe that when I have residence I will try to work, never go back to the street again, never... Even though they are payuing me 200 euros a month, I’d like to. so taht I can find work in the future... working in the streets...
- Something... money, my documents, to have baby, married... many things
“We cannot work, we cannot get money...”.
- My bigger problem here in Spain is that I want to do something in my country I want to build a house, I want to buy a car to my country, I want to bring my sister or my brother, I want to bring them, first I want to do working, doing anything, like fábrica or I will have a store, hacer peluqueria, to get money, money, so I can do what I want to do. Because if I don’t have money I cannot do anything, first money.
-“the only I need to tell the government for them to stop, so I can look for our money. Because if they are disturbing us, we cannot work, we canot get money to do anything we want. Because if they continue like this, maybe later some of us will be sleeping in the streets, you know, because they have to calm down, because they know that we don’t have papers, we don’t work, we don’t have money, only is prostitution we have money, so they have to leave us, because we are not stealing, we don’t fight, we don’t steal...”
- My biggest worry is this, trafficking... and the other one is how to get residence, to be working, is a worry
- I want to get my documents, only that one, if I get my documents everything is going to change.
D. Experiencia de trata
“You look for somebody to take you to go Spain”.
- Because there was no money, I come from a very poor background; I lost my dad so things were very difficult for us, to feed, to eat; so when I met somebody, he said that he was going to help me come to Europe... I came by air... By flight... I have a passport, there's a visa in my passport, but now I don't have it with me, they took everything from me... 3 months visa I have... from the embassy, it was from Czech... (You came from Nigeria to Barcelona?) No, from Nigeria to Czech Republic, so I stay for like one month, 2 months in Czech Republic before I came here to Spain with flight... The boy that brought me... I knew him in 2007. He told me I was coming to Europe, at first I did not agree because I said I must finish my education, but due to the way things were going, no money... So, I decided to come. So I ask them what kind of job they are doing, he told me there are prostitution but there are other job, I said, because that of the prostitution I can't do, I prefer maybe I will look for something else to do, he said no problem when I get here, he said I'm going to... that when I get here, I'm going to pay such an amount of money... So I said no problem, we took the odds and I came, on getting here it was a different woman he gave me to... he wait for me, so he took me to one woman, he gave me to the woman, that I'm going to pay the woman money...
- then I was friend of one man there, is not boy is a man... advanced man, like 30 something years, you know with child because of protection, that is how, is that man money, I used to cross the Morocco, I come to Spain... He paid for me, then I enter...
- en Marruecos mi amiga tenía un contacto, de una mujer que estaba en Valencia y que podía ayudarme a salir de Marruecos y llegar a Ceuta para entrar a España… creo que era la hermana y ella me ayudo porque yo no tenía dinero… pero ella me envío dinero para poder cruzar a Ceuta y luego tenía que pagarle…y yo pensé que cuando llegara a España podría tener mis papeles y un trabajo y pagar ese dinero….pero nada de eso fue así y ahora no tengo no papeles, ni trabajo, ni dinero para pagar a esa mujer…
- they said I should look for money to arrive to Morocco, then from Morocco I come to Spain, you look for somebody to take you to go Spain... If you don't have money, you look for one to take you here, and there you pay the price...
- there are two girls, they have assistant here before but not here, in Italy, so their sisters, they tell them to look at the way that we are going to take, so that's why I go with them... the girls, the assistant bring money from them, it's only the 2 girls that have money, sometimes they... give us, sometimes they buy food for us, because we don't have money... The two girls, they have money, they are very close to me, our house, so they help me a lot... when the boat arrived in Spain... when we arrived there is no rescue, so we go, I go with the two girls, so we met one black boy, so we explain to him that we just coming from the boat, so the boy say we have to stay in his house or one night, so we sleep there. The 2 girls use the telephone of the boy to call the assistant in Italy, so the assistant now send somebody from Madrid to pick the girls, so I go with them and I go to Madrid, I stayed there two months... so the 2 girls, the assistant came from Italy to here, now they took the two girls, he said I'm going to take you train, a local train... they said the two girls don't have residence, they are going to take a local train... He said I shouldn't go with them... so I stay in Madrid... They go to Italy... (Do you know what are they doing in Italy?) When I call them before, they say they're also working in the streets... now, the sister, the big one, now he is married... With white, Italian man, now she doesn't work in the street, sólo the two girls...