Àmbit Prevenció 2011 Mujeres nigerianas víctimas de explotación sexual en la invisibilidadad: dificultades y propuestas Index



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- I want to get my documents, only that one, if I get my documents, everything is going to change...

- I told her, I want to work.. I don't have paper, she told me ok no problem you can use my paper to work... I pay 80 euros... she bring them come to me, she.. send them... after.. taking to the office, they already got the contract, I take the documents back... is good.. before they want to sign me another contract.. so I went to go and meet my jefe, told my jefe "is not.. this document is not mine.." 'cause my jefe she called me, she said, tell me the truth.. is this resident.. is it your residence? I told her is not my residence.. she say ahh. ok.. she told me ok, do you have any paper, to prove, that you are in Europe.. I said yes I have, she said ok you can bring the paper.. to my office.. she used it to write contract.. put.. for the.. for the.. for the paper..! latter she.. told me ok.. no problem there.. we can help her for contract, she go.. she help me for contract... with the lawyer, helping, we went to gobierno.. to go and submit.. documents.. they told me to bring.. police report.. they look at the police report I have, they say is not.. good, you go and do another one.. I say no problem.. before I come and do the.. police report with.. wh.. in Europe.. I already received my police report.. he told me no.. no.. they already closed the.. company..

- now the police is very disturb, they give multa, I'm afraid, I go to the club and there the people ask for residence...

- it's because of my baby [su hija que está en Nigeria], if I had my paper I would go there... if I have the opportunity.. If I have the opportunity I'll do that..that is why I'm even fighting for my paper.. I was trying to do it before but.. the cost of the police report and all that stuff... I got it before, it expired.. they said they're not going to take the expired... police report... I bought the new one.. I'm waiting for a new one, yes...

- Every month, even yesterday the boy call me that he wants to see me, I told him I can't see him, the only reason why I can see him is for him to give me my passport, because I need my passport, I can't be working in the streets, what if I have problems with the police, I can't be working in the street, I need to work on my papers...

- My friend... He say you go... if you get to Europe, they will give me papers, I will work...

- If my proves complete three years, they process my papers... Maybe God can send me a helper to me to help me...
Los papeles, los papeles... son un enorme obstáculo del que no son totalmente conscientes hasta que no llegan aquí; pese a que sean un concepto (otro) que circula por las redes, y del que se habla ya en origen (“Mi amigo... Me dijo tu ve... si llegas a Europa te dan papeles, trabajaré...”), las enormes dificultades asociadas a su obtención parecen constituir una desagradable sorpresa que se descubre (y se va redescubriendo) de este lado de la frontera (“Si no tengo papeles, ¿cómo puedo sobrevivir?”).

Por una parte la aparente imposibilidad de trabajar sin ellos, y aquí su aparente perplejidad ante el absurdo de que trabajador y empleador que deseen empezar una relación laboral deban supeditarla a una autorización administrativa nos interpela, como país de acogida, y desnaturaliza la jerarquización moderna entre nacional y extranjero. Ante la imposibilidad de trabajar legalmente el trabajo sexual se siente como única opción (“también sin papeles no se puedo hacer nada... sólo ese trabajo...”), única vía de supervivencia económica e incluso esa se ve coartada por la falta de documentación: la imposibilidad de trabajar en un club por no disponer de residencia y las dificultades de trabajar en la calle ante la presión policial que utiliza los controles de documentación para zonificar el ejercicio de la prostitución, alejándola de lugares céntricos o turísticos (“No puedo estar trabajando en la calle.. ¿Y si tengo problemas con la policía? Tengo que trabajar en mis papeles...”). Ante las puertas cerradas siempre surgen las estrategias de supervivencia - alguna consigue un trabajo en una fábrica, utilizando los documentos de otra mujer, en una subversión admirable de una cierta ignorancia etnocéntrica que no distingue entre los rasgos faciales de personas de otras razas.

De hecho es la única que logra disponer de una oferta de trabajo que le permita tramitar su residencia mediante arraigo. Aunque, como vimos en el marco legal, la normativa de extranjería espere que empleador y trabajador presenten la oferta de trabajo ante la Oficina de Extranjeros con anterioridad al inicio de la relación laboral, en la práctica ningún empleador ofrecerá un contrato de un año sin saber cómo trabaja la persona; esta mujer trabaja durante un año con los documentos de otra y logra que el empleador esté dispuesto a realizar la oferta de trabajo necesaria para obtener la autorización, dispone de las pruebas de tres años y preparan el procedimiento, que luego se aplaza porque sus penales estaban caducados. Hemos visto las enormes dificultades que entrañan la obtención del certificado de antecedentes penales para las personas nigerianas (actualmente los pueden tramitar una vez al año, pagando entre 100 y 200 euros, y los obtienen después de esperar entre 3 a 6 meses) - cuando esta mujer pudo conseguir un certificado válido la empresa que se disponía a hacerle la oferta había cerrado.

Por otro lado está la imposibilidad de salir de España, que conlleva la imposibilidad de participar en el duelo de familiares que fallezcan mientras esté lejos y de presenciar las vidas de sus hijos y hijas que crecen en sus países de origen mientras ellas están en Europa (“Es por mi bebé... si tuviese mis papeles iría... es por eso que estoy luchando por mis papeles...”).

En ese sentido no extraña que la lucha por obtener los papeles se describa como el hecho transcendente que transformará radicalmente sus vidas (“Quiero conseguir documentos... solo eso... Si consigo mis documentos todo cambiará...”), y que depositen gran parte de sus expectativas (vitales, familiares, laborales, etc..) en ese momento ubicado en un tiempo futuro incierto, que las duras vivencias del presente se sientan como un paréntesis, y que las violencias y explotaciones varias sufridas se silencien y asuman como necesarias para sobrevivir hasta entonces. Independientemente de lo que pase, se están acumulando pruebas de tres años, tramitando certificados de antecedentes penales y esperando que "Quizás Dios me mande un ayudante, alguien que me ayude...”.
E10. ORDEN DE EXPULSIÓN E INTERNAMIENTO EN UN CIE

They gave me fuera...”



- (Did you ever get the yellow card?) No, they give me expulsion. That is good?

- No.. because after they s.. saw me, they told me that.. where is your document.. i told them i don't have document, they say ah, you don't have documents? come with me to comisaria.. then told me what document did you have, you have anything? show me what you have.. i show them hospital card.. they wrote my name down, they told me don't worry, be.. expecting letter, I will.. they told me the expulsion letter... I din't receive anything.. because i'm scared.. because.. is the.. paper i want to loose to have resident.. is not posible.. policeman to be writing this down.. you understand me?

- Noo, porque... porque, pero antes si me coge como dos veces calle de "vesidad" [Ronda Universitat]... pero sólo me lleva a comiseria e nada...

- They gave me "fuera"... They never ask me how are you, no no no no... They have you this to leave the country...

- [En Suiza] It was in the club, everybody working so the police entered, I was having my yellow card and my wallet, and the residence in my wallet... (From another person?) Yes, it was a big problem... I stay up to 2 weeks [in the Comisaría in Switzerland], before they send me back... later they bring me to Spain, is like the court Spain... (and they put you directly in this place, in one CIE?) Yes... They ask me a lot of questions, I told them how I came to Spain... but I didn't tell that I have somebody paying... But I didn't tell them I was paying the… but I told them that somebody brought me to Spain. They ask me if I have that somebody’s number, I said no I don't have any contact, 'cause I don't want to put her into problem, you know... They told me, it's ok, why I did I went to Switzerland and I told them that I don't like Spain, things is very difficult for me in Spain, so that is why I wanted to go to Switzerland... in a week they call me up to 4 times to question me... It's like a prison... in the evening you can go and make call, if you have some number to make some call... there's no SIM card with me, my phone is not working any more... I didn't make call... every time I sit there alone and the camera was watching, sometimes they will call my name... I stay there one month... later they ask me to go. They just call me, they said I should follow him, I was afraid, I was crying, I don't want them to put me in the flight, I was crying, saying “por favor yo no quiero marchar mi país”, they said “venga, ven ven”, I follow them, and they told me “para acá fuera fuera”... I left... When I left, when I came out I was jumping happy (laughing), I was so happy, I call S., I was crying, S. was so happy, we were just crying on telephone, I call my mother...

-They gave me fuera the first time.. so this second time they give me yellow card

- allí de Madrid de Casa de Campo siempre se lleva a chicas...sin papeles, si te encuentras, no es importante si tienes niños, si no tiene es igual...se lleva a persona a su país- mmm- por eso yo salí de ahí...

- They speak to me that I have to find a lawyer, they give me 24 hours to appeal, they give me a lawyer. I said I don't have anything, I don't have a way to live... Lawyer say I should bring everything and fast, everything to lawyer... He doesn't call me, but somebody that speak Spanish more than me, I tell her to help me to call the lawyer, so that I can know the problem...

- They give me fuera in Madrid... it's Madrid... they told me to go and pay 301 euros...

- They will just come take you.. "where's your paper?", "where's your paper?" if you.. don't say.. the paper .. to give to them, they will just take you to the comisaria..

La amenaza de expulsión, el “fuera” en sus palabras, constituye de algún modo una violencia transversal en las vidas de estas mujeres. El “fuera” remite a ordenes de salida no obligatorias, a órdenes de expulsión (más peligrosas), a amenazas vanas por parte de la policía y en algún caso a la muy real posibilidad de internamiento en un CIE anterior a la ejecución forzada de la repatriación.

Hay un “fuera” que es la respuesta gubernativa a la solicitud de asilo (“[Did you ever get the yellow card?] No, they give me expulsión. That is good?”), que la mayoría de las veces es una mera coletilla en la resolución administrativa por la que se deniega esa solicitud, pero en la que se redacta una orden de salida del territorio, que aunque no sea vinculante, atemoriza, descoloca y genera incertidumbre. Luego hay un otro “fuera” que es el final común de los controles de documentación por parte de la policía (“si me coge como dos veces calle de "vesidad" [ronda universitat]...”, “ they will just come take you... where's your paper? where's your paper?"), quién llevan de forma sistemática a las mujeres que no estén provistas de documentación a la Comisaría, para “identificarlas” (como vemos en apartado siguiente), practica policial irregular, pero que termina recurrentemente con estas mujeres saliendo de comisaría con el papel de inicio del expediente sancionador bajo el brazo, y que tampoco es una orden de expulsión (es la comunicación del inicio del procedimiento), pero que en muchos casos será el único documento que vean respecto al tema, porque a partir de ahí deben estar en comunicación cercana con su abogado de oficio para hacer el seguimiento de la cuestión, elemento muchas veces dificultado por barreras idiomáticas (“He doesn't call me, but somebody that speak Spanish more than me, I tell her to help me to call the lawyer, so that I can know the problem...”). Y alguna vez el “fuera” no es un fuera-orden de expulsión sino la otra sanción prevista para la estancia irregular en el territorio (la sanción principal de hecho, que debería aplicarse cuando no existan agravantes), una multa – “they give me fuera in Madrid... it's Madrid... they told me to go and pay 301 euros...”.

Una de ellas, está crudamente cerca de ese momento (reflexionamos sobre ello desde otra perspectiva en el apartado 4.D.4) encontrándose en Suiza a trabajar, la policía realiza una redada en el Club cuando ella llevaba su yellow card (caducada) y los documentos de otra chica (que de la mano de los tratantes utilizó para desplazarse), la policía Suiza la devuelve a España donde al llegar la ingresan en un CIE; estuvo ahí durante aproximadamente 40 días, mientras la interrogaron reiteradas veces, refirió el hecho de haber sido “ayudada” a entrar en España pero omite detalles sobre la deuda o la identidad de la Madame. Finalmente hay un día en el que la sacan de su celda, y sin que supiera si la llevaban a un avión o que pasaría, la dejan en libertad “They just call me, they said I should follow him, I was afraid, I was crying, I don't want them to put me in the flight, I was crying, saying “por favor yo no quiero marchar mi país”, they said “venga, ven, ven”, I follow them, and they told me “para acá fuera, fuera”... I left... When I left, when I came out I was jumping happy (laughing), I was so happy, I call S., I was crying, S. was so happy, we were just crying on telephone, I call my mother...”.

En todo caso alrededor de estos numerosos “fueras” lanzados sobre estas mujeres hay un claro sentimiento de aleatoriedad (“pero sólo me lleva a comisaria e nada...”), una nube de incertidumbre generalizada que es reforzada por un cierto elemento de familiaridad o de normalidad extraña en el gesto que controla y dictan expulsiones en papel (“..i show them hospital card.. they wrote my name down, they told me don't worry, be.. expecting letter”, “They have you this to leave the country...”) sin que se sepa en qué momento exactamente o cual será el fuera que dictará su entrada forzada en un avión rumbo a Nigeria (“no es importante si tienes niños, si no tiene es igual...se lleva a persona a su país”); y este sentimiento, esta imposibilidad de saber ¿que pasará? y que les impide programar, prever y soñar sus vidas de forma autónoma, también es violencia.
E11. ORDENANZAS Y MULTAS

“These multas, this yellow...”



- Police never give me multa, never...

- I use to run because of the multa, because I don't have money...

- last time the police control me over there, when I sit down, with a plastic rubber... they came, and they told me to get up, after I stood up, they take me to take the rubber, to put in the basura, I put in the basura... but later they write it in the paper that I throw the plastic on the floor, and it's not right, and they give me multa, 180€... I feel bad, I don't feel happy, because they just can't give me multa for what I don't know, I did not kill somebody or I did not even steal, just to sit down... they write that I take the rubber and I throw it on the street, and it's not fair, even I not able to speak Spanish, but is not good that police people will be lying just because they are español or they are police, is not fair...

- No... When I saw the police I will run

- many times they've give me multa, I don't do anything, maybe if I'm just walking on the street, they will call me “donde están papeles?”, “no tengo”, “vale, multa”... esto no bien, o no puedo para pasear la calle o qué?

- but now I can't try.. because there's too much police, they're still buying us multa, I don't have money to feed all, to go and give for a multa, no.. I don't have..

- when I was in Vic, I meet them always.. they always give me multa, multa, those kind of yellow card than i'd take it home and the person who I give money he tell me it's not important... I give him and he said it's not important; I said that I should go and pay the multas and he said no, this is not important, they're just warning you when you... when you sit there don't run, don't do this, because I don't know how to speak language... I didn't know the multa is still ready and why did they gave you these multas, these yellow... so I never payed the "multa"...

- they are give me multa before.. that I bring this place..

Las respuestas sobre si habían recibido multas por infracciones a las ordenanzas de civismo (en teoría impuestas por ofrecer servicios sexuales en la calle, es decir por algo que hacen, pero que en la práctica es virtualmente imposible de demostrar, por lo que se redunda en la infracción de que sus caras sean conocidas, que hayan sido previamente identificadas, o que parezcan prostitutas) se bifurcan en dos bloque opuestos – algunas afirman no haber recibido nunca una multa porque se van corriendo cuando ven a la policía (“When I saw the police I will run”) y las que dicen recibirlas de forma reiterada (“they always give me multa, multa”). Algunas describen como las multan en supuestos manifiestamente abusivos, como tirar al suelo una bolsa de plástico, en la que en realidad estaba sentada antes que el agente le pidiera que la tirara a la basura, lo que hizo (y luego es multada igualmente), o por caminar por la calle (“ don't do anything, maybe if I'm just walking on the street”).

Hay que destacar que la imposición de multas se articula violentamente con los controles de documentación, multándolas por infracción a la ordenanza después de que digan no tener papeles (“ they will call me “donde está papeles?”, “no tengo”, “vale, multa”...”), lo que ahonda en la sensación de discriminación (al final, ¿se las multa por prostitutas o por extranjeras?). Las mujeres rechazan estas actuaciones, las perciben como injustas “ esto no bien, o no puedo para pasear la calle o qué?” y abusivas “t is not good that police people will be lying just because they are español or they are police, is not fair...” y se sienten menospreciadas y violentadas “Maybe they hate black, or maybe they hate us that we are working in prostitution”.

Por otro lado, la presencia de la policía multando se siente también como una carga económica añadida en sus vidas, un factor de peso en su economía privada: “I don't have money to feed all, to go and give for a multa, no... I don't have...”, es una presencia que aumenta sus gastos, funcionando casi como una forma de impuestos abusivos a su trabajo diario, que llega a veces a redundar en la imposibilidad de poder conseguir dinero - “ but now I can't try... because there's too much police, they're still buying us multa”, cuando, recordamos, esta es para muchas la única forma posible de obtener ingresos económicos.

En ese sentido las multas, esos papeles amarillos, son no apenas gestos abusivos y discriminatorios sino que representan un obstáculo importante a su supervivencia económica; para las mujeres coaccionadas frente al pago de una deuda, las multas conllevan, además, un aumento de los riesgos y de la violencia sobre sus familiares.
E12. ¿POLICIA COMO AGENTE DE PROTECCIÓN?

“When I saw the police I will run...”



- Yes... Many times... just they take me to Comisaría...

- [Lanzarote] I don't know if they are people from Red Cross, if they are people from Police or they are lawyer, I don't know, but when they came, they was interview us, asking us questions, the way we came, how do we came to Spain... So, they was telling us maybe they are going to deport us, maybe they are going to leave us in...

- Italy is too hard, they say a lot of police, too much... for camp, after you come out you will hear about the story police too much, this, they used to carry person to Nigeria...

- Because the power they have, they see my papers, they see my Asilo...

- They take four first, go the market... paper, "documentation", we refused to bring the documents to her because we don't do anything. Before they called many police, by... ten police... And carried me to the Police Station, I spend two days for there... In the court, the police said to the judge we push her, about documents and that we refused...The judge has asked me what happened, me, I said, I don't know the police ask me for my documents... because I don't do anything... They don't give me anything, they said the case is finish

- The first time was when they catch me, the first place in this road, so I sleep there, they thumb print me, because I was new. So, they thumb print me, after they allowed me to go...

- Maybe sometimes they will catch me on the street, and ask me papers … They only catch me in the street, but they never take me to the Station... When I saw the police I will run...

- antes si me coge como dos veces calle de "vesidad"... pero sólo me lleva a comisaria e nada... nada más que... porque este trabajo, como yo fui...un curso de... de agente de salud, es un trabajo de... no es ilegal, no es ilegal...! mmm... a veces se encuentra los polícias... porqué se puede pedir papeles a las chicas? porque no es un trabajo de ilegal, no es ilegal... de aquí...

- They tell me that they don't want any prostitute in the street..

- When they have to make a control, police have to surround everywhere, so they ask the girls the residence, if they see we don't have residence, we have to go outside, those that have residence they have to go, and later they will call the other police to bring the car, so we go in the car, they take us to Comisaría to make the prints... the first time they doesn't treat me good, they take me pictures... in the front, in the back, in the side...

- Because the police don't like the black girls, even if I tell police somebody beat me, they will not do anything because I don't have paper... maybe sometimes, if the police go, we can come out from the Àmbit and stand like that...

- they take me to take the rubber, to put in the basura, I put in the basura, but later... they give me multa, and they write that I take the rubber and I throw it on the street, and it's not fair...! even I not able to speak Spanish, but is not good that police people will be lying just because they are español or they are police, is not fair... Maybe they hate black, or maybe they hate us that we are working in prostitution, I don't know... I feel bad, I don't feel happy, because they just can't give me multa for what I don't know, I did not kill somebody or I did not even steal, just to sit down... I know that we don't have the same color, but is the same God that created both of us...

- they give me multa 300 and take 200 from me; I asked what about the money? they said I should go, if not they would take me to comisaria than I left, I go home...

- well they catch me in the road... Because you are in the street, you are looking for clients, they meet us, we doesn't do anything... We are going with some boys, we are talking to them... the police, we don't know the time they come to us, we said to them we don't do anything with them, we are just stopping to them, one of police say they don't do anything let us, but the other one said no, we must go to Police Station. We are not doing anything, we are just talking to them, we doesn’t do anything, we are just talking to them, the policeman said no, we should go to Station, they take us to the Station... day break, that is the next day... they speak to me that I have to find a lawyer, they give me 24 hours to appeal, they give me a lawyer...
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