Once Upon a Time in Italy: Transnational Features of Genre Production 1960s -1970s Stefano Baschiera and Francesco Di Chiara

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-start the chapter talking about how Sarli and Bo fared nationally and that most of their work fared better internationally- cost and figures?
-not possible to fully understand Sarli-Bo cinema and the genre cinema that they made through the nation state perspective

-failed to acquire a stable transnational identity both economically and culturally

Once Upon a Time in Italy: Transnational Features of Genre Production 1960s -1970s

Stefano Baschiera and Francesco Di Chiara

-package-unit system the bigger study only acts as the financier and distributor orf films made by smaller companies – tied to the transnational dimension that European cinema has been acquiring since the late 1950s

-this is what attracted Bo to the Sweedish and even other European films that were exhibited in Argentina since the 1950s

look at Elsaesser – Europe and Hollywood and Higson essay on national cinema

-entering through the back door

-coproductions played a crucial role in the development of europe’s national cinemas and definition of minor European genres such as giallo.

-hiding the international involvement?

-says no- horror and western present to be wholly foreign and the comedies fully Italian- all were coproductions

-giallo exploited the possibility offered by coproduction agreements to shoot in suggestive international locations


-instead of being hybrid products of clash of different national identities involved in coproducion or recognizable national character and subjectivity (Higson)

-gialli underplayed national identity in favour of more neutral international one

-like BO

-Italian industry: one side making very national films trying to define the national and the other distant from national history and contemprorary social issues

-gialli set in contemporary times and in real spaces to describe now and where of hard to define European identity

-theme of travel

-map contemporary Europe

-inauthentic predictable and clichéd transnational identity

-cliched European jet set the easily identifiable background against which the narrative develops or against which the different narrative components of the genre are put together as in a jigg saw

-europe is a hedonistic promised land and emerges as borderless and united

-sold the image of an exotic and vicious euope also visible in the licentious and subersive European art films

-relationship between art film and popular cinema with involvement of coproeuction agreements and international market

-compares two coproductions who have the same ideals while one is an art film and the -differ in terms of production values and narrative: one is slow paced like European auteur cinema and the other suspense gimmicks of the genre and more explicit and senaationalist situations

-destroy any trace of italianness and subsitute it with hazy cosmpolitianism

USArgentine Coproductions, 1982-1990: Roger Corman, Aries Productuions, Schlockbuster movies and the international market. Falicov

-argentine landscape served as backdrop doubled for Europe

-stereotyped images –tango and latino men

-shot in english

-relative size and wealth of fim markets play determining role in shaping of film content and formation of cultural products

-Aires- popular genres subsidized the social dramas

-two types: sword and sorcery which displayed no specific markings of argentina in terms of script content and cinematography? and those made with its geographic and cultural locale in mind

-scripts were rewritten by US writers to US audience

-differed from original scripts present stereotyped images for easy US audience consumption

-so sketchy the analysis


“Alternatively, the authors of the above quote do support coproductions between Latin American countries because they instead “respect the dreams and kids of expression fostered by our peoples”. The notion of commercial coproductions by Latin American countries was not considered as a possible exception to this notion of pan national culture.” P.37 note 15

-choice of script actors, genre language and stereotypes remained in place
Augusto Roa Bastos and Argentine Film” David William Foster
prizewinning 1953 story collection- title story

-David William Foster attributes the separation of the Roa-Bo formula to “The couple was exploring formulas of international funding and thematic variations that cannot have appealed to Roa who adhered throughout his life to an austere socialist ideology that had little use for profits gained on the basis of exploitation of the flesh”

Variety says “ Production credits are standard. Technical aspects are ordinary but acceptable for the first Paraguayan pic try.”
28 junio 1986 “IS y sus recuerdos nostalgicos” en Ultima hora, Asuncion

-en la burrerita Ernesto Baez, Carlos Gomez, Sara Gimenez

-La burrerita se bano desnuda

-“siempre tenia alguna intencion social” In reference to the films of Armando Bo

-Armando met Roa when he was an employee of the insurance agency La continental and he brought Armando a copy of his book

-he would meet regularly with Bo to change the script and change the story

4 octubre 1980- go visit Paraguay

-recived a proposal by Paravision to film another film

-another version or continuation of burrerita

-after they finished premiering Una viuda

-tienen planeado un viaje por USA, Japan, Hong Kong, Israel as many films will be shown in Tel Aviv

-adoptive son is son of a Paraguayan woman

-says that she loves nature and is not a night person
Sabaleros did not get good review Nande 15 june 1959

El trueno begins December 1, 1956 and finished February 17, 1957

Estacion Fassardi (Obraje) and Paraguay?
Cast from Paraguay: Ernest Baez, Javier Franco, Leandro Cacavelos, Amador Garcia and Matias Ferreira Diaz

-estudios de Guaradia SA

-Emigidio Ayala Baez and harp by Eladio Martinez Mi dicha lejana was the main song
he was critiqued by Mauricio Cardozo O Campo a musician for having a bad intention in the argument of the film –Bo contradicts this

-campanas empezada por El pais en pro de las manifestaciones to preserve Paraguayan culture- what are these?

En Fassardi Insinua sus Formas el cine paraguayo” Patria Jan 8, 1957 Rogelio Silvero

Subsecretaria de informacines de la presidencia de la republica

-80% de elementos paraguayos

“Esta pelicula sera la senal defiitiva para fomentar la industria cinematografica en nustra patria sin necesidad de recurrir a otras Fuentes”

-“unos de los primeros intentos serios en favor del cine nacional“
-firma Fassardi y Cia, Ltd. – fabrica de maderas

-90% of the scenes take place in fassardi

-brought a cinema to the region – projector and films such as honraras a tu madre with Armando bo
-was an Italian Jose Fassardi who owned the company Fassardi Limitada Industrial Comercial Ganadera y Agricola- cultivo de cana de azucar 1925-1965 3000 funcionarios

-actually used the offices of this company

“Pueden decir que El trueno entre las hojas sera una pelicula que honrara al Paraguay.. no sera como vavaticinaron ciertos periodsitas de asuncion”

-here he is referring to a note appeared in el pais which suggested that the arugment of the film needed to be looked at

-he says “No merece decsde luego otra cosa. Aqui estamos haciendo algo netamente paraguayo. Hay tema paisaje, musica y personajes nada mas que paraguayos. Hemos tratado de encerrar en el film todo el folklore de esta tierra”

-indios guayaquies -20 of which 3 are women

-contract signed with the asociacion indigenista del Paraguay

Cacique Kamaiti que hace Annec

-hungaro Andres Lazlo ex cantante de opera que haria su debut en eel cine con esta pelicula-WHY HE DOES HUNGARO

-Anibal Romero Javier Franco Vargas Cacavelos, Arguello are all Paraguayan actors

-presidente de la compania fassardi el esenor Rene Vaesken

-going to Concepcion and then Encanacion and then Asuncion for some scenes en el jardin botanico

Formosa se filmaran las ultimas escenas
“Se estrena el jueves pelicula nacinal” in the text it says coproduction –note about it premiering in Prague international film festival

-premiers in August 8, 1957 in Paraguay in Granados – first country in America where this film is shown (shown in Prague- diploma al film con major mensaje- mention went out to Roa Basots, photography and music)

-autoridades paraguayas y periodistas argentinos que van al estreno de la pelicula

ad for the film “verdadera iniciacion triunfal de la cinematografia paraguaya peresentada con orgullo en los festivals internacionales”

“Con la colaboracion de la sociedad indigenista del Paraguay y nuerososa extras mas”
Critique Oscar tru

-“los dramones que puedan denigrar los senitmientos patrios”

“mas hay en ellas barbariedades que merecerian parrafos aparte”

-need to find something that is truly ours

Crique Ada’e

-armas y deslizadora que no coresponden a la epoca en que ocurre

-music does not correspond

“con respecto al argumento se puede decir que es un pedazo descarnado de una de las dolorosas realidades paraguayas ya sueradas felizente hasta hace unos cuantos anos atras”

These co-productions were distributed by Pel-Mex, the most important distribution company of popular genres in Latin America. Developed as early as 1940 as a conglomerate of different distributors in the 1960s Pel-Mex became part of the state apparatus in Mexico, distributing to South and Central America, the Caribbean, Spain, Portugal and the US. Between 1970 and 1979 Pel-Mex distributed 115 Argentine films. To put this into some context this made up only 4% of the films shown in the country (Getino). Argentina did not have an equivalent to Pel-Mex, although the Instituto Nacional de Cine launched an effort to create an official state supported apparatus like Pel-Mex, named Uniargentina, which would overlook the distribution of national products and encourage co-productions in foreign markets. Uniargentina; however, never amounted to anything. Therefore Pel-Mex would take its place. Perhaps this lack of national support for co-productions explains the few films that managed to cross borders. According to Octavio Getino the only Argentine films that were able to penetrate foreign markets were Sandro’s films, the sex comedies made by Jorge Porcel and Alberto Olmedo, Libertad Leblanc’s nudes, and the Sarli/Bo films (Getino); that is “commercial betrayals of ‘national’ cinema” as Guback would argue. This scenario gives rise to many interesting questions, such as the role of Pel-Mex in constructing “Latin American” cinema or the power relationships that these co-productions enact amongst Latin American nations. However, because of lack of time today

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