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The uncertain connection: Free trade and rural Mexican migration to the United States



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The uncertain connection: Free trade and rural Mexican migration to the United States. IMR, Vol. XXVII, No. 3. 1999, pág. 485.

18 Cfr. PELLEGRINO, A. Migrantes latinoamericanos: síntesis histórica y tendencias recientes. Universidad de la Republica-CEPAL-CELADE, mimeografiado. Montevideo, 2000.

19 VILLA Miguel y MARTINEZ PIZARRO, Jorge. Tendencias y patrones de la migración internacional en América Latina y el Caribe. En: Simposio sobre migración internacional en las Américas, OIM-CEPAL. San José, Costa Rica, 4-6 de septiembre de 2000. P. 1.1.7.

20 Ibidem.

21 Ibid. P. 1.1.8.

22 MILLS, F. Population and housing census of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Regional monograph, intraregional and extra regional mobility, the new Caribbean migration. Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean Community, 1997.

23 SCHMIDLEY D. Y GIBSON, C. Profile of the foreign-born population in the United States: 1997, U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports, series P23-195, Washington D.C. (WWW.census.gov).

24 Op. cit. p. 1.1.10.

25 Dinámica actual y contexto de las migraciones en América Central, Migración y Derechos Humanos: Reunión de personas expertas / IIDH, San José, Costa Rica, IIDH, 2004.


26 Orozco, Manuel, Remesas hacia Latinoamérica y el Caribe: cuestiones de perspectivas acerca del Desarrollo, Migración y Derechos Humanos: Reunión de personas expertas / IIDH, San José, Costa Rica, IIDH, 2004

27 El BID ha hecho un llamado para que disminuyan los márgenes de intermediación y ganancias de los bancos y casas de cambio a fin de que aumenten las remesas que reciben las familias en los países de salida.

28 US$ 40 mil millones en el 2003 para Latinoamérica y el Caribe, con un promedio de $700 a $1000 por inmigrante

29 Ibíd.

30 MARMORA, Lelio. El Fenómeno migratorio regional en América Central y del Norte, Políticas y Gobernabilidad. En: Foro Regional sobre Derechos Humanos, Refugiados y Migraciones en América Central. San José, Costa Rica, 28-30 de octubre de 1996, p. 28.

31 Citado por MARMORA, Lelio. Ibid. P. 29.

32 CONGRESO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, Inmigración indocumentada a los Estados Unidos: El desarrollo económico como respuesta. Informe de la Comisión para el Estudio de la Migración Internacional y del Desarrollo Económico Cooperativo, Resumen Ejecutivo, Washington D.C. 1990.

33 Zeledón Cristina y Pacheco Gilda, Mujeres Migrantes y Derechos Humanos. Necesidad de un reconocimiento específico.

34 Guzmán Laura y Zeledón Cristina. Los derechos humanos de la mujer migrante en el trabajo y en el hogar. En IIDH, Estudios Básicos de Derechos Humanos, S.J., C.R.. IIDH, 1995 p.255-290.

35 Pacheco, Gilda. Migraciones Forzadas en Centroamérica. Evolución psicosocial en Lejos del país: Emigrantes, Refugiados, Exiliados, Nueva Sociedad, No.127, 1993

36 Resolución de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos del 18 de agosto de 2000. Medidas provisionales solicitadas por la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos respecto de la República Dominicana.

37 Ibid. Voto concurrente del juez A.A. Cançado Trindade, ns. 7 y 7.

38 Corte IDH, Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, Opinión Consultiva OC-18/03, de 17 de septiembre de 2003, párr. 163.


39 Estas recomendaciones fueron discutidas como ponencia en el V Congreso de la Federación Interamericana de Ombudsman (FIO) en el 2000, cuando el IIDH ejercía como su Secretaría Técnica.

40 Corte IDH, Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, Opinión Consultiva OC-18/03, de 17 de septiembre de 2003, párr. 169. CEJIL.


41 Corte IDH, Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, Opinión Consultiva OC-18/03, de 17 de septiembre de 2003, párr. 172. (El resaltado no es del original). CEJIL.


42 Corte IDH, Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, Opinión Consultiva OC-18/03, de 17 de septiembre de 2003, párr. 118. CEJIL


43 Corte IDH, Condición jurídica y derechos humanos del niño, párr. 45; Propuesta de modificación a la Constitución Política de Costa Rica relacionada con la naturalización, párr. 55; Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, párr. 87. CEJIL.


44 Corte IDH, Condición jurídica y derechos humanos del niño, párr. 47; Propuesta de modificación a la Constitución Política de Costa Rica, Opinión Consultiva OC-4/84, de 19 de enero de 1984, párr. 57; Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados, párr 91. CEJIL.


45 Corte IDH, Caso Baena Ricardo y Otros Vs. Panamá, Sentencia de 2 de febrero de 2001, párrs. 124 y 125. CEJIL.


46 Informe sobre la visita in loco a Costa Rica de la Relatoría Especial para los Trabajadores Migratorios y los Miembros de sus Familias, párrs. 192 y 194. CEJIL.


47 Following the example of the Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, published in October 2005 (see < www.gcim.org >), this Note does not attempt to give a definition of “international migration” or “international migrants” and will focus on people who have been living outside their country for more than a year, as well as on temporary migrants.

48 Most of the data referred to in this Note are derived from the Report cited in footnote 1.

49 The Hague Convention of 14 March 1978 on Celebration and Recognition of the Validity of Marriages, in force (only) for Australia, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (and signed only by Egypt, Finland and Portugal). On the potential of this Convention, see P. Nygh, “The Hague Marriage Convention – A Sleeping Beauty?”, in A. Borrás c.s. E Pluribus Umum, Liber Amicorum Georges A.L. Droz (1996), pp. 253-269, and, in a wider context, P. Lagarde, “Développements futurs du droit international privé dans une Europe en voie d’unification: quelques conjectures”, in RabelsZ. (2004), pp. 225-243.

50 The Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption is now in force for 68 States.

51 Art. 17(c).

52 Art. 5(c) and 18.

53 Art. 10-13.

54 The United Nations Convention of 20 June 1956 on the Recovery Abroad of Maintenance.

55 See “Progress report on the development of a new international instrument on the International Recovery of Child Support and other forms of Family Maintenance”, Prel. Doc. No 7 of March 2006 for the attention of the Special Commission of April 2006 on General Affairs and Policy of the Conference, with the attached “Tentative draft Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance”, Art. 6: “Central Authorities shall provide assistance (…) In particular, they shall (…) facilitate [collection and] expeditious transfer of maintenance payments”.

56 The Hague Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children.

57 See, in particular, in addition to the Hague Conventions already mentioned: the Convention of 1 June 1970 on the Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations, the Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the Convention of 13 January 2000 on the International Protection of Adults, the Convention of 14 March 1978 on the Law Applicable to Matrimonial Property Regimes, the Convention of 5 October 1961 on the Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions and the Convention of 1 August 1989 on the Law Applicable to Succession to the Estates of Deceased Persons.

58 See “Post-Convention work, regional developments and the need for a systematic programme of training”, Prel. Doc. No 6 of March 2006 for the attention of the Special Commission of April 2006 on General Affairs and Policy of the Conference.

59 Most notably the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has on many occasions recommended to States Parties to the United Nations Convention of 20 November 1989 on the Rights of the Child to join the Hague Conventions on protection of children.

60 For a more complete analysis, see the Report cited in footnote 1, especially Chapters I-III. This Note largely draws upon this Report, but focuses on cross-border aspects.

61 See B. Ghosh, “Myths, rhetoric and realities: migrants’ remittances and development”, paper prepared at the request of the Hague Process on Refugees and Migration and the International Organisation for Migration (2006), and D. Sriskandarajah, “Migration and development”, a paper prepared for the Global Commission on International Migration (< www.gcim.org/en/ir_experts.html >).

62 Report (footnote 1), Ch. Six, No 6, p. 66.

63 See < www.ohchr.org/english/countries/ratification/13.htm >.

64 See < www.thehagueprocess.org/activities/declaration/samenvatting.htm >.

65 See also “Towards a common European Union immigration policy”:

< www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/fsj/immigration/fsj_immigration_intro_en.htm >, and Green paper on "An EU approach to managing economic migration":

< www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/doc_centre/immigration/work/doc/com_2004_811_en.pdf >.

66 Supra, No 15.

67 The Report of the Global Commission on International Migration makes a strong case for the design of effective temporary migration programmes. It argues that “the old paradigm of permanent migrant settlement is progressively giving away to temporary and circular migration” and underlines the “developmental opportunities this provides for countries of origin” (Ch. II, No 42, p. 31).

68 Supra, No 18.

69 See, for example, R. v. Wacker [2002] EWCA Crim 1944 (31 July 2002).

70 Art. 1(b) and 10-13.

71 See Report (footnote 1), Ch. One, No 34, p. 18, “careful consideration [must be given inter alia to] licensing and regulating the activities of agents involved in the recruitment of temporary migrants”.

72 Supra, Nos 16 and 17.

73 These types of programs are particularly relevant as an alternative to forced return. In the case of irregular migrants not allowed to remain in the host country, voluntary return assistance balances the need for the migrant to avoid the stigma of deportation and legal exclusion from future return to the country of destination, with the need of host countries to manage their migration issues in the most humane and cost-effective way possible. Voluntary return may also be a choice for persons who have been served “notice to leave the country” and who are threatened with forced removal.


74 Participants included government officials and experts from Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, The Cayman Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, The Netherlands Antilles, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos, and representatives of observer governments and regional institutions.


75 The personal, family, work, educational, and migratory background information of each worker is stored in a digital filing system along with his/her corresponding digital photograph and ready to send electronically. The database currently has a registry of over 29,000 applicants. This database includes information regarding the age, sex, community of origin, technical skills, etc. of the applicants to the TSUMW.


76 ILO: Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy International Labour Conference, Geneva 2004, p. 7. Available on line at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc92/pdf/pr-22.pdf

77 Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Granada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

78 The Argentine legislature adopted the 1990 Convention on 17 December 2006.

79 Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. Condición Jurídica y Derechos de los Migrantes Indocumentados Opinion Consultativa OC-18/03 de 17 de Septiembre de 2003, solicitada por los Estados Unidos de Mexico.

80 As reported by Beth Lyons, (USA) National Employment Law Project, September 28, 2003

81 Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration. ILO. Geneva. 2006. Available on line at:

(English: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/multilat_fwk_en.pdf;

Spanish - http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/tmmflm-sp.pdf; and

French - http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/multilat_fwk_fr.pdf )



82 Tripartite experts participated from Argentina, Barbados, Canada, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and the USA.

83 Workshop “Migrant Workers: Protection of Labour Rights and Labour Market Programs” ( Ottawa, Canada November 28-29, 2006), organized jointly by Human Resources and Social Development Canada and the Department of Social Development and Employment, SEDI of the Organization of American States (OAS).





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