¿Qué son los verbos modales? Los verbos can, could, may, might, will, would, should, and must



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¿Qué son los VERBOS MODALES?

Los verbos can, could, may, might, will, would, should, and must, son llamados verbos auxiliares modales, son usados antes de los infinitivos de otros verbos, y muestran en cierta manera el grado de seguridad, certeza, obligación, etc. de las acciones que se llevan a cabo.

1. Gramática

a. los verbos modales no llevan `s' en la 3º persona del singular.

Ej. She should go to the doctor.

b. después de los modales usamos el infinitivo sin el `to'

ej. She must water the plants.

2. Clases de significado de los modales

Una clase de significado de los modales, es el grado de certeza: los modales son usados para decir que una situación es segura, probable, posible o imposible.

La otra clase de significado tiene que ver con la obligación y la libertad de acción: los modales pueden ser usados para decir que alguien está obligado a hacer algo, que es capaz de hacer algo, que algo esta permitido o prohibido.



Grados de certeza

Los siguientes modales son usados para mostrar distintos grados de certeza sobre un hecho o evento:

a) certeza total: (positiva o negativa)

must, mustn't, will, won't, can, can't.

b) probabilidad / posibilidad.

Should, shouldn't, may, may not

c) débil probabilidad o posibilidad

might, might not, could, couldn't

d) condicionalidad o posibilidad.

Would, wouldn't, could, couldn't.



Obligación y libertad de acción

Los verbos modales son usados para expresar aspectos varios de obligación y libertad. Estos usos de los verbos modales son muy importantes en expresiones de educación, sugerencias, invitaciones e instrucciones.

a) obligación fuerte.

Must


b)prohibición

must not, can't

c)obligación débil: sugerencia o recomendación

should, might, may

d) voluntad, insistencia y ofrecimientos.

Will, would

e) permiso

can, may, might(muy formal)

f) habilidad

can, be able to



Auxiliary verbs or modals
(auxiliawri verbs or modals)
(verbos auxiliares o modales)

The modals are: will and would; shall and should; can and could; may and might; must and had to; ought to; and had better.

Will and would:

"will" (wil) = expresa un plan futuro.


Ex:     
I will be there at 7:00 pm o´clock.

"would" (wuld) = pone a una acción en terminación "ría", y/o expresa una . . .

. . . Petición amable.    Ex:      would you help me please?
                                                     (wuld iu jelp mi pli..s?)
                                               (me ayudaría usted por favor?)

. . . Un deseo.      Ex:    I would like to see her.


                                        (ai wuld laik tu si jer)
                                          (me gustaría verla)

. . . Un rechazo.   Ex:           she wouldn´t lend any money to me.


                                                (shi wuldent lend eni moni tu mi)
                                               (ella no me prestaría ningún dinero)

. . . Una buena voluntad. 

Ex:                        I would take the car to the mechanic but i am very tired.
                               (ai wuld teik de car tu de mecanic bot ai am vewri taird)
                              (yo llevaría el carro al mecánico pero estoy muy cansado)

Shall and should:

"shall" (shal) = expresa una sugerencia con sentido futuro.
Ex: 
Shall I see you tomorrow? (shal ai si iu tumowrou?) (te vere mañana?).

Nota: recuerde las reglas de los auxiliares:

4) Los auxiliares se escriben igual para todas las personas.
Ex:   
I will, you will, he will, she will, etc...
I would, he would, etc...
I shall, you shall, we shall, he shall, etc...

5) Primero se pone la persona, luego el auxiliar y después la acción sin pluralizar (para todas las personas).


Ex:
I can kiss her.                          He can do it.
She can kiss her.                      It can do it.

6) Después de un auxiliar, las acciones "be" y "have" no cambian su forma ni se dividen como lo hacen normalmente con las personas.


Ex:
I can be a good student.                  He can have a lot of money.
She will be with her parents.          Shall he have a house too?.
It would be fine.                               She would have a good future.

"should" (shuld) (debería) = expresa recomendación.

Con "I" y "we" = indica una responsabilidad personal.
Con "you", "they", "we", "he", "she" e "it" = indica sugerencia.
Ex:
I should do my homework but I never have time.
(ai shuld du mai jomwork bot ai never jav taim)
(yo debería hacer mi tarea pero nunca tengo tiempo)

She should visit her grandmother but she doesn´t have time.


(shi shuld visit jer grandmoder bot shi dosent jav taim)
(ella debería visitar a su abuela pero no tienen tiempo)

We shouldn´t kill animals or plants.


(ui shuldent kil animals or plants)
(nosotros no beberíamos matar animales o plantas)

Should I love everyone in the world?


(shuld ai lov evwri wuan in de world?)
(¿debería yo amar a cada uno en el mundo?)

Can and could:

"can" (can) (poder, pero de habilidad) = you are able to do something.

"could" (culd) (podría, podía, pudiste, pudo) = you were able to do something.


Ex:
She can do whatever she likes to.
(shi can du jwatever shi laiks tu)
(ella puede hacer lo que sea que ella quiera hacer)

He could speak English very well 3 years ago.

He couldn´t afford the car which he liked.
(ji culdent aford de car wich ji laikt)
(él no pudo pagar el carro que le gusto)

Can you speak louder than she does?


Could he do his work so well as she did it?

May and might:

"may" (mei) (poder) = expresa permiso para acciones presentes y futuras, y una posibilidad en un 60% posible.
Ex:
When it is hot, you may open the windows.
May I dance with you?
It may rain this afternoon because the sky is cloudy.
You may not touch her.

"might" (maigt) (puede, podría, podrias) = expresa un permiso que fue dado en algún punto del pasado, y una posibilidad en un 20% posible.


Ex:
He said that he might open the windows.
It might snow in Veracruz this winter.
If you scold him, he might tell you the truth.

Must and had to:

"must" (most) (debe, debes, deben) = expresa . . .

1) Necesidad = have to.


Ex:
I must go now = I have to go now.
He must see them tomorrow.
She mustn´t smoke a lot.
Must they do what you want?.

Para expresar necesidad en pasado, se usa "had to".


Ex:
He told me that he had to tell you the truth.

2) Probabilidad o una conclusión lógica.


Ex:
All the people are leaving, it must be time for them to do it.
She isn´t here, so she must´t want to go with us.
She has gotten a new job, she must like it.

3) Una obligación moral.


Ex:
Sometimes people must believe in something to be happy in their lives.

4) Una prohibición.


Ex:
The doctor told me I mustn´t smoke or drink alcohol.

Ought to and had better:

"ought to" (ougt tu) (debí, debiste, debiera, debieras) = expresa una recomendación fuerte o una obligación muy personal.
Ex:
I ought to write more often to my best friends.
She ought not to smoke a lot because she may die.
You ought not to make me get angry, it may be dangerous for you.
I ought to have done my work when i could.

"had better" (jad beder) (seria mejor que, mas vale que) = expresa un fuerte consejo o una advertencia.


Ex:
You had better do it as she says (sería mejor que tú lo hicieras como ella dice).

You had better not to smoke in a gasoline station, it may burn the station. (seria mejor que tu no fumes en una estación de gasolina, puede encender la estación)

Nota: recuerde que existe  "there be" (hay), en este caso, el auxiliar o modal se coloca en medio de "there" y "be".
Ex:
There will be another chance (habrá otra oportunidad).

There would be 2 persons in that place the other day.


(habría dos personas en ese lugar el otro día)

There must be many good lessons in this course.


(debe haber muchas buenas lecciones en este curso)

There may be lots of difficult questions in the exam.


(puede haber montones de preguntas difíciles en el examen)

Clase Practica

Advanced 1 English practice, unit 7
"auxiliary verbs or modals"

Guess what auxiliary verb fits in the blanks:

1) i ________ be there at 7:00 pm o´clock.
2) __________ you help me please?
3) she _________n´t lend any money to me.
4) i  _________ take the car to the mechanic but i am very tired.
5) we ___________ do our homework but i never have time.
6) she ___________ visit her grandmother but she doesn´t have time.
7) he __________ speak English very well 3 years ago.
8) we __________n´t afford the car which he liked.
9) ________ you speak louder than she does?
10) _________ he do his work as well as she did it?
11) it ________ rain this afternoon because the sky is cloudy.
12) he said that he _________ open the windows.
13) it _________ snow in Veracruz this winter.
14) he told me that he __________ tell you the truth.
15) she isn´t here, so she _______n´t want to go with us.
16) she has gotten a new job, she ________ like it.
17) the doctor told me I ______n´t smoke or drink alcohol.
18) you _________ not to make me get angry, it _____ be dangerous for you.
19) there _______ be another chance.
20) there ___________ be 2 persons in that place the other day.

Elige la respuesta correcta:
EJEMPLO: "I want to play" o "You must play"

Principio del formulario

1. I want ________ you tomorrow.
  to see
  see

2. I can't ________ you tomorrow.


  to see
  see

3. You must ________ hard.


  study
  to study

4. Heather tried ________ but she was too tired.


  study
  to study

5. I can't ________ you.


  hear
  to hear

6. He wants ________ what she is saying.


  hear
  to hear

7. I want ________ a doctor.


  be
  to be

8. I must ________ sick - I have a fever.


  to be
  be

9. I couldn't ________ to the movies with Fiona.


  go
  to go

10. Alex does not know how ________.


  drive
  to drive

Final del formulario



Elige la respuesta correcta:
EJEMPLO: "I want to play" o "You must play"

Principio del formulario

1. I might ________ to China next year.
  go
  to go

2. She prefers ________ the blue dress.


  wear
  to wear

3. I can't ________ French.


  to speak
  speak

4. You shouldn't ________ about him so much.


  worry
  to worry

5. My brother loves ________ in the shower.


  to sing
  sing

6. I will ________ a song for you.


  to sing
  sing

7. My brother doesn't like ________ hard.


  to work
  work

8. You asked me ________ you a puppy.


  buy
  to buy

9. You must always ________ your hands before you eat.


  to wash
  wash

10. I could not ________ my key this morning.


  find
  to find

Final del formulario


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