Sentence Structure



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Notes: 12/12/16- AR verb conjugation


  • Sentence Structure

  1. Capitalization

  2. Subject

  3. Conjugated verb

    1. Make sure subject and verb agree- ex: I walk, she walks.

  4. Predicate (rest of the sentence)

  5. Punctuation

Spanish follows these basic rules as well. Make sure you capitalize the beginning of your sentences and any cities or people’s names. They do NOT capitalize “yo” unless it’s at the beginning of a sentence.


  • Subject pronouns in English:


Singular Plural

1st person: I

1st person: we

2nd person: you (inf)

2nd person: you all, you guys (inf)

3rd person: he, she,

-------------------------

you (form)

3rd person: they,

------------------------------

you all (form)




  • Subject pronouns in Spanish:


Singular Plural

1st person: YO

1st person: NOSOTROS

2nd person: (inf)

2nd person: VOSOTROS (inf) *Spain

3rd person: ÉL

ELLA

--------------------

USTED (UD.) (form)

3rd person: ELLOS

ELLAS

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USTEDES (UDS.) (form)




  • Verb conjugations- things to remember:

    • All verb infinitives in Spanish end in:

      • -AR

      • -ER

      • -IR

        • They mean “to…” ex: to run, to laugh, to swim, to play, etc.

        • DO NOT use subject pronouns with verb infinitives. They must be conjugated to make sense: ex: I laugh, she swims, etc. NOT I to laugh, she to swim, etc.

      • They are the most general form of the verb.

      • Conjugate in sentences to make sense!

  • Steps for conjugating regular –AR verbs in Spanish:

  1. Look at verb ending- AR.

    1. Know definition of verb

    2. Drop ending

  2. Remaining stem keep.

  3. Add conjugated ending


Example: Hablar.
Step 1: Verb ending is AR. Definition: to speak/to talk. Drop ending: HABL- (stem).

Step 2: Stem is HABL. There must be an ending added to conjugated verb.


Conjugated AR verb endings, Use pg. 118:


1st person: - O

1st person: - AMOS

2nd person: - AS

2nd person: - ÁIS

3rd person: - A

--------------------

  • A

3rd person: - AN

--------------------

  • AN

Step 3: For endings: If you want to say, “I speak,” place the O after the stem. It becomes “hablo.” Add “yo” to make the sentence. “Yo hablo.” I speak/I talk. Another example, “Ella habla.” She speaks. Take the A, add to stem, make sense with subject pronoun and conjugated verb.




  • Definitions in English:

    • Yo hablo.-

      • I talk.

      • I do talk.

      • I am talking.

    • Ella estudia.-

      • She studies.

      • She does study.

      • She is studying.

        • There are 3 different translations in English for a Spanish verb phrase. Any one of those translations can be accepted when asked to translate sentences to English.

        • Use all PRESENT TENSE only.

        • This rule can be applied to any verb, and subject, especially regular –AR verbs you are studying now.

    • Ex- English definitions:

      • Nosotros entramos.-

        • WE ENTER…

        • WE DO ENTER…

        • WE ARE ENTERING…

  • List of common –AR verbs from Un 2 chapter 1. Other verb definitions were used with “gusta-like.” Use page 55 for additional definitions/verbs not in this chapter but included on practice, tests and quizzes (pg. 117 is Un 2 Ch 1 vocab). ALL below will be on future tests/quizzes- know definitions and how to conjugate (the box). Fill in blanks.




    • Alquilar (un DVD)- TO RENT

    • Andar (en patineta, en bicicleta)- TO RIDE (A SKATEBOARD, A BIKE) *andar- to walk

    • Comprar- TO BUY

    • Descansar- TO REST

    • Dibujar- TO DRAW

    • Tocar- TO PLAY (an instrument)

    • Montar (en bicicleta)- TO RIDE (A BIKE) (or horse: caballo)

    • Trabajar- TO WORK

    • Pasear- TO GO FOR A WALK, TO TAKE A WALK, TO GO FOR A STROLL

    • Practicar (deportes) – TO PRACTICE (SPORTS)

    • Enseñar- TO TEACH

    • Llegar- TO ARRIVE

    • Mirar- TO WATCH/ TO LOOK AT (“at” is included in definition)

    • Necesitar- TO NEED

    • Pasar (un rato con los amigos)- TO SPEND (TIME WITH FRIENDS)

    • Preparar- TO PREPARE

    • Usar (la computadora)- TO USE (THE COMPUTER)

    • Escuchar- TO LISTEN TO (“to” is already included in definition)

    • Estudiar- TO STUDY

    • Hablar (por teléfono)- TO TALK (ON THE PHONE)/ TO SPEAK

    • Sacar (una buena/mala nota)- TO GET (a good/bad grade) (verb phrase)




    • Tomar (apuntes)- TO TAKE

Additional:

    • Ayudar- TO HELP

    • Buscar- TO LOOK FOR, TO SEARCH FOR (for is included in the definition. No need for an additional word for “for”).

    • Contestar- TO ANSWER

    • Entrar- TO ENTER

    • Esperar- TO WAIT FOR, TO EXPECT ( “for” is included just like in buscar)

    • Llevar- TO WEAR, TO CARRY

    • Cantar- TO SING

    • Bailar- TO DANCE

    • Nadar- TO SWIM

Some phrases have ( ) associated with them. These are some common words used together, but can have other words used as well. For example: usar- to use can be used with computadora or calculadora, libro, etc.


  • Other vocabulary:

    • La clase de… (add school subject)

    • El lápiz- pencil

      • Plural becomes los lápices



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