Make sure subject and verb agree- ex: I walk, she walks.
Predicate (rest of the sentence)
Spanish follows these basic rules as well. Make sure you capitalize the beginning of your sentences and any cities or people’s names. They do NOT capitalize “yo” unless it’s at the beginning of a sentence.
Subject pronouns in English:
1st person: I
1st person: we
2nd person: you (inf)
2nd person: you all, you guys (inf)
3rd person: he, she,
3rd person: they,
you all (form)
Subject pronouns in Spanish:
1st person: YO
1st person: NOSOTROS
2nd person: TÚ (inf)
2nd person: VOSOTROS (inf) *Spain
3rd person: ÉL
USTED (UD.) (form)
3rd person: ELLOS
Verb conjugations- things to remember:
All verb infinitives in Spanish end in:
They mean “to…” ex: to run, to laugh, to swim, to play, etc.
DO NOT use subject pronouns with verb infinitives. They must be conjugated to make sense: ex: I laugh, she swims, etc. NOT I to laugh, she to swim, etc.
They are the most general form of the verb.
Conjugate in sentences to make sense!
Steps for conjugating regular –AR verbs in Spanish:
Look at verb ending- AR.
Know definition of verb
Remaining stem keep.
Add conjugated ending
Example: Hablar. Step 1: Verb ending is AR. Definition: to speak/to talk. Drop ending: HABL- (stem).
Step 2: Stem is HABL. There must be an ending added to conjugated verb.
Conjugated AR verb endings, Use pg. 118:
1st person: - O
1st person: - AMOS
2nd person: - AS
2nd person: - ÁIS
3rd person: - A
3rd person: - AN
Step 3: For endings: If you want to say, “I speak,” place the O after the stem. It becomes “hablo.” Add “yo” to make the sentence. “Yo hablo.” I speak/I talk. Another example, “Ella habla.” She speaks. Take the A, add to stem, make sense with subject pronoun and conjugated verb.
Definitions in English:
I do talk.
I am talking.
She does study.
She is studying.
There are 3 different translations in English for a Spanish verb phrase. Any one of those translations can be accepted when asked to translate sentences to English.
Use all PRESENT TENSE only.
This rule can be applied to any verb, and subject, especially regular –AR verbs you are studying now.
Ex- English definitions:
WE DO ENTER…
WE ARE ENTERING…
List of common –AR verbs from Un 2 chapter 1. Other verb definitions were used with “gusta-like.” Use page 55 for additional definitions/verbs not in this chapter but included on practice, tests and quizzes (pg. 117 is Un 2 Ch 1 vocab). ALL below will be on future tests/quizzes- know definitions and how to conjugate (the box). Fill in blanks.
Alquilar (un DVD)- TO RENT
Andar (en patineta, en bicicleta)- TO RIDE (A SKATEBOARD, A BIKE) *andar- to walk
Comprar- TO BUY
Descansar- TO REST
Dibujar- TO DRAW
Tocar- TO PLAY (an instrument)
Montar (en bicicleta)- TO RIDE (A BIKE) (or horse: caballo)
Trabajar- TO WORK
Pasear- TO GO FOR A WALK, TO TAKE A WALK, TO GO FOR A STROLL
Practicar (deportes) – TO PRACTICE (SPORTS)
Enseñar- TO TEACH
Llegar- TO ARRIVE
Mirar- TO WATCH/ TO LOOK AT (“at” is included in definition)
Necesitar- TO NEED
Pasar (un rato con los amigos)- TO SPEND (TIME WITH FRIENDS)
Preparar- TO PREPARE
Usar (la computadora)- TO USE (THE COMPUTER)
Escuchar- TO LISTEN TO (“to” is already included in definition)
Estudiar- TO STUDY
Hablar (por teléfono)- TO TALK (ON THE PHONE)/ TO SPEAK
Sacar (una buena/mala nota)- TO GET (a good/bad grade) (verb phrase)
Tomar (apuntes)- TO TAKE
Ayudar- TO HELP
Buscar- TO LOOK FOR, TO SEARCH FOR (for is included in the definition. No need for an additional word for “for”).
Some phrases have ( ) associated with them. These are some common words used together, but can have other words used as well. For example: usar- to use can be used with computadora or calculadora, libro, etc.