Spanish III realidades-2 El



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Spanish III

Realidades-2

El 30 de enero 201

Para Empezar


TAREA










¡¡¡Estudien Uds.!!! Capítulo 1A

Una introducción parte I

Meta: Describe yourself and others


An Introducción to adjectives
Para empezar página 3
1. Talking about friends Video showing classmates describing each other
2. Gramática-Repaso página 3
3. Chart on page 3 Realidades 2
4. Recuerdas list of adjectives
5. Actividad 2 Actividad 3 practica ¿Cómo son?
6. Recuerdas página 3 using these adjectives, describe two friends in class.
7. Write a description of yourself.
Have another students read it to you in Spanish.

Gramática y Repaso


¿Cómo eres tú?
Spanish Adjectives: Part I
Adjectives are frequently descriptive. That is, most often adjectives are used to describe a noun, or distinguish the noun from a group of similar objects. For example, an adjective might describe the color of an object.

the red pen

the blue pen

In Spanish, most adjectives change form, depending upon whether the word they modify is masculine or feminine. Notice the difference between "the tall boy" and "the tall girl."



el chico alto

la chica alta

Adjectives also change form depending upon whether the word they modify is singular or plural. Notice the difference between "the tall boy" and "the tall boys" ; "the tall girl" and "the tall girls."



el chico alto

los chicos altos

la chica alta

las chicas altas

Many common adjectives end in -o. These adjectives have four forms. The following words all mean "tall":



alto
alta
altos
altas

The correct form of the adjective depends upon the noun it modifies. Is the noun masculine or feminine? Singular or plural?



libro rojo

red book

pluma roja

red pen

libros rojos

red books

plumas rojas

red pens

Notice how the endings of the nouns and these adjectives are similar.



libro rojo

pluma roja

libros rojos

plumas rojas

Adjectives that end in -e also change form for singular or plural. To form the plural, simply add -s.

la chica inteligente

las chicas inteligentes

Adjectives that end in -e do not, however, change form for masculine or feminine.



la chica inteligente

el chico inteligente

las chicas inteligentes

los chicos inteligentes

Similarly, most adjectives that end in a consonant do change form for singular or plural, but do not change for masculine or feminine. To form the plural, add -es.



la chica popular

el chico popular

las chicas populares

los chicos populares

Let's review.



  1. Adjectives that end in -o have four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas

  2. Adjectives that end in -e have two forms: inteligente, inteligentes


Adjectives: Part II

Many adjectives of nationality end in -o. These adjectives follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in -o. That is, they have four forms.


el muchacho mexicano

la muchacha mexicana

los muchachos mexicanos

las muchachas mexicanas

Many other adjectives of nationality end in a consonant. These adjectives do not follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in a consonant, rather, they have a distinct feminine form ending in -a.



el muchacho español

la muchacha española

los muchachos españoles

las muchachas españolas

There is another group of adjectives that does not follow the normal rules. Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín also have a feminine form.



el chico hablador

la chica habladora

los chicos habladores

las chicas habladoras

el hombre trabajador

la mujer trabajadora

los hombres trabajadores

las mujeres trabajadoras
Note: Adjectives ending in "-erior" do not have a feminine form.


Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.

el chico alto

la chica alta

los libros pequeños

las plumas rojas

Adjectives of quantity almost always come before the noun. Such adjectives tell how much or how many.



pocos libros

mucha energía

mucho trabajo

pocas casas

Sometimes, a descriptive adjective can precede the noun. If the adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first.



la blanca nieve

the white snow (snow is inherently white)

los altos picos

the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)

Let's review the last two lessons.

Adjectives that end in -o have four forms.



alto

alta

altos

altas

Adjectives of nationality ending in -o are no different from other such adjectives.



guatemalteco

guatemalteca

guatemaltecos

guatemaltecas

Adjectives that end in -e have two forms.



inteligente

inteligentes

Most adjectives ending with a consonant have two forms.



popular

populares

Adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant have four forms.


español

española

españoles

españolas

Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín have four forms.


hablador

habladora

habladores

habladoras

Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.


casa blanca

chica alta

When an adjective speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective precedes the noun.


la blanca nieve

los altos picos
Adjectives of quantity usually come before the noun.

pocos libros

muchos libros
REVIEW from Realidades 1 Spanish I y 2:


Days of the Week

In Spanish-speaking countries, the week begins on Monday.



lunes

Monday

martes

Tuesday

miércoles

Wednesday

jueves

Thursday

viernes

Friday

sábado

Saturday

domingo

Sunday

SER
In Spanish, there are two verbs that can be translated as "to be." These two verbs are ser and estar. This lesson will not focus on their correct usage; rather, it is designed to give you lots of practice conjugating these two verbs. For detailed explanations of when to use ser and when to use estar, see the following lessons:

Ser and estar - the fundamentals

Uses of ser

Uses of estar

Contrasting uses

For these quizzes, you only need know how to conjugate ser and estar.




estar

ser

estoy

estás


está

estamos


estáis

están


soy

eres


es

somos


sois

son

This list isn't complete, but it includes most Spanish- and English-speaking countries as well as countries you're most likely to see in Spanish-language news reports.

Alemania (Germany) — alemán

Argentina — argentino

Australia — australiano

Austriaaustriaco, austríaco

Bélgica (Belgium) — belga

Bolivia — boliviano

Brasil — brasileño

Canadá — canadiense

Chile — chileno

China — chino

Colombia — colombiano

Corea del Norte (North Korea) — nortecoreano, norcoreano

Corea del Sur (South Korea) — sudcoreano

Costa Rica — costarricense, costarriqueño (uncommon),

Cuba — cubano

Dinamarca (Denmark) — danés

Ecuador — ecuatoriano

Egipto (Egypt) — egipcio

El Salvador — salvadoreño

Escocia (Scotland) — escocés

España (Spain) — español

Estados Unidos (United States) — estadounidense

Filipinas (Philippines) — filipino

Francia — francés

Gales (Wales) — galés

Gran Bretaña (Great Britain) — británico

Grecia (Greece) — griego

Guatemala — guatemalteco

Haití — haitiano

Honduras — hondureño

la India — indio, hindú

Inglaterra (England) — inglés

Irak, Iraq — irakí, iraquí

Irán — iraní

Irlanda — irlandés

Israel — israelí

Italia (Italy) — italiano

Japón — japonés

Marruecos (Morocco) — marroquí

México, Méjico — mexicano, mejicano

Nicaragua — nicaragüense

Noruega (Norway) — noruego

Nueva Zelanda (New Zealand) — neozelandés

Países Bajos (Netherlands) — holandés

Palestina — palestino

Panamá — panameño

Paraguay — paraguayo

Perú — peruano

Polonia (Poland) — polaco

Portugual — portugués

Puerto Rico — puertorriqueño

la República Dominicana (Dominican Republic) — dominicano

Rusia — ruso

Sudáfrica (South Africa) — sudafricano

Suecia (Sweden) — sueco

Suiza (Switzerland) — suizo

Taiwan — taiwanés

Uruguay — uruguayo

Venezuela — venezolano

Comjugation regular Spanish Verbs

___________________________
Regular Spanish Verb REVIEW

In Spanish, there are three categories of verbs. The category is determined by the last two letters of the infinitive:



-ar verbs (like hablar)

-er verbs (like comer)

-ir verbs (like vivir)

The infinitive is the base form of the verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live, etc. In Spanish, all infinitives end in



-ar, -er, or -ir.

-ar verb
hablar (to speak)

-er verb

comer (to eat)


-ir verb

vivir (to live)

To conjugate a verb means to manipulate the infinitive so that it agrees with the different possible subjects. Here is the present tense conjugation of the infinitive "to speak":



to speak
I speak

you speak

he speaks

she speaks

we speak

you-all speak

ALL OF YOU speak

they speak

The present tense in Spanish can mean three things.



yo hablo

I speak
yo hablo

I do speak
yo hablo

I am speaking

Many Spanish verbs are completely regular, meaning that they follow a specific pattern of conjugation. In this lesson you will learn to conjugate regular -ar, -er, and -ir verbs (in the present tense). Before you can do that, you must memorize the following subject pronouns.



yo (I)

(you - informal) VOS= very polite

él (he)

ella (she)

usted (you - formal)
nosotros/nosotras (we)

vosotros/vosotras (you-all - informal)
ellos/ellas (they)

ustedes (you-all formal)

Tú = you familiar
VOS= You but VERY polite

Old Spanish but still used in

Many countries - in Central and

South America America
Such as- Uruguay , Argentina……
For a review of the subject pronouns, click here.

Spanish infinitives are divided into two parts: the ending and the stem. The ending is the last two letters. Remember, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir. The stem is everything that's left after you remove the ending.



habl + ar = hablar

com + er = comer

viv + ir = vivir

In this lesson, we will use three model verbs: hablar, comer, and vivir. In Spanish, you conjugate verbs by changing the ending. If the subject is I (yo), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -o.



yo hablo (hablar - ar + o = hablo)

I speak, I am speaking, I do speak
yo como (comer - er + o = como)

I eat, I am eating, I do eat
yo vivo (vivir - ir + o = vivo)

I live, I am living, I do live

If the subject is you - informal (tú), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -as (for -ar verbs) or -es (for -er and -ir verbs).



tú hablas (hablar - ar + as = hablas)

you speak, you are speaking, you do speak
tú comes (comer - er + es = comes)

you eat, you are eating, you do eat
tú vives (vivir - ir + es = vives)

you live, you are living, you do live

If the subject is he (él), she (ella) or you - formal (usted), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -a (-ar verbs) or -e (-er and -ir verbs).



él/ella/usted habla (hablar - ar + a = habla)

he speaks, she is speaking, you (formal) do speak
él/ella/usted come (comer - er + e = come)

he eats, she is eating, you (formal) do eat


él/ella/usted vive (vivir - ir + e = vive)

he lives, she is living, you (formal) do live

If the subject is we (nosotros/nosotras), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -amos, -emos, or -imos, depending on whether the verb is -ar, -er or -ir.



nosotros hablamos (hablar - ar + amos = hablamos)

we speak, we are speaking, we do speak
nosotros comemos (comer - er + emos = comemos)

we eat, we are eating, we do eat
nosotros vivimos (vivir - ir + imos = vivimos)

we live, we are living, we do live

If the subject is you-all - informal (vosotros/vosotras), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -áis, -éis, or ís.



vosotros habláis (hablar - ar + áis = habláis)

you-all speak, you-all are speaking, you-all do speak
vosotros coméis (comer - er + éis = coméis)

you-all eat, you-all are eating, you-all do eat
vosotros vivís (vivir - ir + ís = vivís)

you-all live, you-all are living, you-all do live

If the subject is they (ellos/ellas) or you-all - formal (ustedes), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -an (-ar verbs) or -en (-er and -ir verbs).



ellos/ellas/ustedes hablan (hablar - ar + an = hablan)

they speak, they are speaking, you-all (formal) do speak
ellos/ellas/ustedes comen (comer - er + en = comen)

they eat, they are eating, you-all (formal) do eat
ellos/ellas/ustedes viven (vivir - ir + en = viven)

they live, they are living, you-all (formal) do live
As you can see, to conjugate regular -ar verbs, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:

-o

-as

-a

-amos

-áis

-an

To conjugate regular -er verbs, simply drop the ending (-er) and add one of the following:


-o

-es

-e

-emos

-éis

-en

To conjugate regular -ir verbs, simply drop the ending (-ir) and add one of the following:



-o

-es

-e

-imos

-ís

-en





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