Stem-changing Verbs Present Tense



Descargar 145.08 Kb.
Fecha de conversión14.01.2018
Tamaño145.08 Kb.
Stem-changing Verbs

Present Tense



  1. The stem or root of a verb is the beginning of the verb before the –AR, -ER, or –IR ending. In the present tense some verbs may have a change in the stem.







    • The vowel o from the stem converts to ue, o > ue




    • These changes occur in all persons of the singular (yo, tú, él/ella/usted) and the third person plural (ellos/ellas/ustedes) of –AR, -ER, and –IR stem-changing verbs.




    • These changes do not occur in the nosotros or vosotros forms.




pensar (ie)- to think

yo pienso nosotros pensamos

tú piensas vosotros pensáis

él/ella/usted piensa ellos/ellas/ustedes piensan





perder (ie)- to lose

yo pierdo nosotros perdemos

tú pierdes vosotros perdéis

él/ella/usted pierde ellos/ellas/ustedes pierden





dormir (ue)- to sleep

yo duermo nosotros dormimos

tú duermes vosotros dormís

él/ella/usted duerme ellos/ellas/ustedes duermen





  1. Some –IR verbs have an e > i stem change.



repetir- to repeat

yo repito

tú repites

él/ella/usted repite


nosotros repetimos

vosotros repetís



ellos/ellas/ustedes repiten


Common Stem-changing verbs

o > ue

e > ie

e > i

  • acostar – to put to bed

  • almorzar – to eat lunch

  • contar – to count or to tell

  • dormir – to sleep

  • encontrar – to meet

  • jugar (u > ue) – to play

  • llover – to rain

  • morir – to die

  • mostrar – to show

  • mover – to move

  • poder – to be able to

  • recordar – to remember

  • soñar – to dream

  • calentar – to heat

  • comenzar – to begin

  • defender – to defend

  • despertar – to wake

  • divertir – to have fun

  • empezar – to begin

  • encender – to turn on

  • entender – to understand

  • mentir – to lie

  • pensar – to think

  • perder – to lose

  • preferir – to prefer

  • querer – to want

  • sentar – to sit

  • sentir – to feel

  • corregir – to correct

  • elegir – to elect or to chose

  • pedir – to ask for

  • repetir – to repeat

  • servir – to serve

  • medir – to measure


Preterit Tense


  • In the preterit tense, only – IR verbs can experience a stem change.




    • The change only occurs in the third person singular (él/ella/usted) and plural (ellos/ellas/ustedes) forms of the verbs.







sentir – to feel

sentí

sentiste


sintió

sentimos

sentisteis

sintieron





pedir – to ask for

pedí

pediste


pidió

pedimos

pedisteis

pidieron



      • The vowel o from the stem changes to u, o > u, like in the verbs dormir and morir




dormir – to sleep

dormí

dormiste


durmió

dormimos

dormisteis

durmieron





morir – to die

morí

moriste


murió

morimos

moristeis

murieron





  • For pronunciation reasons, some -AR verbs have spelling changes that occur only in the yo-form (1st person singular) of the verb. All other forms of the verb are normal.




    • In -AR verbs ending in…

      • -car, the c changes to qu




tocar - to play or to touch

toqué

tocaste


tocó

tocamos

tocasteis

tocaron





sacar - to take out

saqué

sacaste


sacó

sacamos

sacasteis

sacaron





      • -gar, the g changes to gu

jugarto play

jugué

jugaste


jugó

jugamos

jugasteis

jugaron





pagarto pay

pagué

pagaste


pagó

pagamos

pagasteis

pagaron





      • -zar, the z changes to c

comenzarto pay

comen

comenzaste

comenzó


comenzamos

comenzasteis

comenzaron





cruzarto play

cru

cruzaste


cruzó

cruzamos

cruzasteis

cruzaron




  • When conjugating -ER and -IR verbs whose stems end in a vowel, note the spelling change in the third person singular (-) and plural (–ieron) of the verb.




    • The letter i from the - and the –ieron ending changes into the letter y.

    • The letter i on all the other forms of the verb receives an accent.

      • This change occurs because any time there is an unaccented letter i between two vowels, the i changes to a y.




Creerto believe

creí

creíste

creyó


creímos

creísteis

creyeron





caerto fall

caí

caíste

cayó


caímos

caísteis

cayeron





    • The -IR verb, oír, follows this same pattern.




rto hear

oí

oíste

oyó


oímos

oísteis

oyeron





  • -IR verbs ending in -iur have a similar spelling change involving the letter y for the same reason.




    • These spelling changes only occur in the 3rd person singular and plural forms of the verb.






incluirto include

incluí

incluiste

incluyó


incluimos

incluisteis

incluyeron




construirto construct

construí

construiste

construyó


construimos

construisteis



construyeron



Stem-Changing Verbs
UE Stem-Changing Verb
Encontrar: To find, encounter


Tense

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Present

I find

Yo encuentro

You find (informal)

Tú encuentras

He, she, you find(s) (formal)

Él, ella, usted encuentra

We find

Nosotros encontramos

They, you find (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes encuentran

Preterit

I found

Yo encontré

You found (informal)

Tú encontraste

He, she, you found (formal)

Él, ella, usted encontró

We found

Nosotros encontramos

They, you found (plural)

Ellos, ellas, usteded encontraron

Imperfect

I used to find

Yo encontraba

You used to find (informal)

Tú encontrabas

He, she, you used to find (formal)

Él, ella, usted encontraba

We used to find

Nosotros encontrábamos

They, you used to find (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes encontraban

Future

I will find

Yo encontraré

You will find (informal)

Tú encontrarás

He, she, you will find (formal)

Él, ella, usted encontrará

We will find

Nosotros encontraremos

They, you will find (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes encontrarán

Present Subjunctive

I find

Yo encuentre

You find (informal)

Tú encuentres

He, she, you find(s) (formal)

Él, ella, usted encuentre

We find

Nosotros encontremos

They, you find (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes encuentren

Past Subjunctive

I found

Yo encontrara

You found (informal)

Tú encontraras

He, she, you found (formal)

Él, ella, usted encontrara

We found

Nosotros encontraramos

They, you found (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes encontraran

Present Perfect

I have found

Yo he encontrado

You have found (informal)

has encontrado

He, she, you have found (formal)

Él, ella, usted ha encontrado

We have found

Nosotros hemos encontrado

They, you have found (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes han encontrado




UE Stem-Changing Verb Example Sentences


  1. Present Tense- He finds- Encuentra

English: He finds a lot of information when he reads his history book.

Spanish: Encuentra mucha información cuando lee su libro de historia.


  1. Future Tense- We will find- Encontraremos

English: We will find what we need for the project.

Spanish: Encontraremos lo que necesitamos para el proyecto.


  1. Imperfect Tense- You used to find (informal)- Encontrabas

English: You used to find everything. Now you can’t find anything.

Spanish: Encontrabas todo. Pero ahora no puedes encontrar nada.


  1. Preterit Tense- They found- Encontraron

English: They found a lot of information about the environment on the news last night.

Spanish: Encontraron mucha información sobre el ambiente vía las noticias anoche.


  1. Past Subjunctive Tense- She found- Encontrara

English: We hoped that she found her part of the information for the group to complete the history project.

Spanish: Esperamos que encontrara su parte de la información para el grupo para completar el proyecto para la clase de historia.


  1. Present Subjunctive- I find- Encuentre

English: She hopes I find everything I need for my aunt’s party.

Spanish: Espera que yo encuentre todo lo que necesito para la fiesta de mi tía.


  1. Present Perfect Tense- You have found (plural)- Han encontrado

English: You have found a lot of information about the forests of the Americas.

Spanish: Han encontrado mucha información sobre los bosques de las Américas.
IE Stem-Changing Verbs
Querer: To want or to love


Tense

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Present

I want/love

Yo quiero

You want/love (informal)

Tú quieres

He, she, you wants/loves

él, ella, usted quiere

We want/love

Nosotros queremos

They, you want/love (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes quieren

Preterit

I wanted/loved

Yo quise

You wanted/loved (informal)

Tú quisiste

He, she, you wanted/loved (formal)

Él, ella, usted quiso

We wanted/loved

Nosotros quisimos

They, wanted/loved (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes quisieron

Imperfect

I used to want/love

Yo quería

You used to want/love

Tú querás

He, she, you used to want/love (formal)

él, ella, usted quería

We used to want/love

Nosotros queríamos

They, you used to want/love (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes querían

Future

I will want/love

Yo querré

You will want/love (informal)

Tú querrás

He, she, you will want/love (formal)

Él, ella, usted querrá

We will want/love

Nosotros querramos

They, you will want/love (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes querrán

Present Subjunctive

I want/love

Yo quiera

You want/love (informal)

Tú quieras

He, she, you wants/loves (formal)

Él, ella, usted quiera

We want/love

Nosotros quieramos

They, you want/love (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes quieran

Past Subjunctive

I wanted/loved

Yo quisiera

You wanted/loved (informal)

Tú quisieras

He, she, you wanted/loved a person (formal)

Él, ella, usted quisiera

We wanted/loved

Nosotros quisieramos

They, you wanted/loved (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes quisieran

Present Perfect

I have wanted/loved

Yo he querido

You have wanted/loved (informal)

has querido

He, she, you have wanted/loved (formal)

él, ella, usted ha querido

We have wanted/loved

Nosotros hemos querido

They, you have wanted/loved (plural)

Él, ella, usted han querido


IE Stem-Changing Verb Example Sentences


  1. Present Tense- We want- Queremos

English: They give us what we want.

Spanish: Nos dan lo que queremos.



  1. Imperfect Tense- You used to want (informal)- Querías

English: You used to want to go to the park all the time. Now you want to stay home.

Spanish: Querías ir al parque todo el tiempo. Ahora quieres quedarte en casa.


  1. Preterit Tense- I wanted- Quise

English: I wanted to go to the party last night, but my Dad didn’t let me.

Spanish: Quise ir a la fiesta anoche, pero mi papa no me permitió.


  1. Future Tense- He will want- Querrá

English: He will want to travel to different places in the world after he graduates college.

Spanish: Querrá viajar a lugares diferentes el mundo después de que se gradúe de la

Universidad.




  1. Present Subjunctive Tense- You want (formal)- Quiera

English: We hope you want to help us with the project.

Spanish: Esperamos que quiera ayudarnos con el proyecto.


  1. Present Perfect Tense- They have wanted- Han querido

English: They have wanted to go there before.

Spanish: Han querido ir allá antes.


  1. Past Subjunctive Tense- I wanted- Quisiera

English: They wished I wanted to work with them.

Spanish: Esperaron que yo quisiera trabajar con ellos.





I Stem-Changing Verbs
Pedir: To ask for, request


Tense

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Eng

Span

Present

I ask for/request

Yo pido

You ask for/request (informal)

Tú pides

He, she, you asks for/requests (formal)

Él, ella, usted pide

We ask for/request

Nosotros pedimos

They, you ask for/request (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes piden

Preterit

I asked for/requested

Yo pe

You asked for/requested (informal)

Tú pediste

He, she, you asked for/requested

Él, ella, usted pidió

We asked for/requested

Nosotros pedimos

They, you asked for/requested (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustdes pidieron

Imperfect

I used to ask for/request

Yo pedía

You used to ask for/request (informal)

Tú pedías

He, she, you used to ask for/request (formal)

Él, ella, usted pedía

We used to ask for/request

Nosotros pedíamos

They, you used to ask for/request (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes pedían

Future

I will ask for/request

Yo pediré

You will ask for/request (informal)

Tú pedirás

He, she, you will ask for/request (formal)

Él, ella, usted pedirá

We will ask for/request

Nosotros pediremos

They, you will ask for/request (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes pedirán

Present Subjunctive

I ask for/request

Yo pida

You ask for/request (informal)

Tú pidas

He, she, you ask for/request (formal)

Él, ella, usted pida

We ask for/request

Nosotros pidamos

They, you ask for/request (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustdes pidan

Past Subjunctive

I asked for/requested

Yo pidiera

You asked for/requested (informal)

Tú pidieras

He, she, you asked for/requested (formal)

Él, ella, usted pidiera

We asked for/requested

Nosotros pidiéramos

They, you asked for/requested (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustedes pidieran

Present Perfect

I have asked for/requested

Yo he pedido

You have asked for/requested (informal)

has pedidos

He, she, you have asked for/requested (formal)

Él, ella, usted ha pedido

We have asked for/requested

Nosotros hemos pedido

They, you have asked for/requested (plural)

Ellos, ellas, ustdes han pedido


I Stem-Changing Verb Example Sentences


  1. Preterit Tense- He asked for- Pidió

English: After running five miles, he asked for the bottle of water.

Spanish: Después de correr cinco millas, pidió la botella de agua.


  1. Present Tense- I ask for- Pido

English: I always ask for ice cream on a hot summer day.

Spanish: Siempre, pido helado en un día calor en el verano.


  1. Future Tense- You will ask for (informal)- Pedirás

English: You will ask for the special plates when you order your dinner.

Spanish: Pedirás los platos especiales cuando ordenes la cena.


  1. Imperfect Tense- They used to ask for- Pedían

English: They used to ask for orange juice all the time at breakfast, but now they want milk.

Spanish: Pedían el jugo de naranja todo el tiempo al desayuno, pero ahora, quieren leche.


  1. Present Subjunctive Tense- We ask for- Pidamos

English: They hope we ask for their favorite wine at dinner tonight.

Spanish: Esperan que pidamos su vino favorite para la cena esta noche.


  1. Present Perfect Tense- You have asked for (formal)- Ha pedido

English: You have asked for that drink many times.

Spanish: Ha pedido ese refresco muchas veces.


  1. Past Subjunctive Tense- You (plural)- Pidieran

English: I hope you asked your teachers for the information about the new program at school.

Spanish: Espero que les pidieran a sus maestros la información sobre el programa nuevo a la

escuela.


Spanish BCCC Tutoring Center Rev. 7/2015




Compartir con tus amigos:


La base de datos está protegida por derechos de autor ©bazica.org 2019
enviar mensaje

    Página principal