SUGGESTED LIST OF ISSUES RELATING TO VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Submitted by The Advocates for Human Rights,
a non-governmental organization in special consultative status with ECOSOC
65th Session (Pre-sessional Working Group)
March 7 – 11, 2016
The Advocates for Human Rights (“The Advocates”) is a volunteer-based nongovernmental organization committed to the impartial promotion and protection of international human rights standards and the rule of law. Established in 1983, The Advocates conducts a range of programs to promote human rights in the United States and around the world, including monitoring and fact finding, direct legal representation, education and training, and publications. The Advocates’ Women’s Human Rights Program has published 25 reports on violence against women as a human rights issue, frequently provides consultation and commentary on drafting laws on domestic violence, and trains lawyers, police, prosecutors, and judges to effectively implement new and existing laws on domestic violence. The Advocates also provides legal services to low-income asylum seekers in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Since 2014, a growing number of women from Honduras who have fled gender-based violence have requested legal assistance from The Advocates in seeking asylum in the United States. Information from asylum seekers about gender-based violence in Honduras has been used in this submission with their permission.
Violence against women is widespread and systematic in Honduras, and it affects women and girls in numerous ways. Within the country there are high levels of gun violence, domestic violence, femicide, and sexual violence. Within the country there are high levels of gun violence, domestic violence, femicide, and sexual violence. Upon completing her country mission to Honduras in July 2014, the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women noted that “between 2005 and 2013, the number of violent deaths of women rose by 263.4%.”1 She continued, “statistics from the Public Prosecutor’s Office reflect approximately 16,000 reported allegations of numerous manifestations of violence against women for 2012, with 74.6% related to domestic and intra-family violence, and 20% related to sexual offences.”2 Rape is the most common form of sexual violence in Honduras.3 From 2009 to 2012, victims filed 82,547 domestic violence complaints, representing an average of 20,637 complaints per year, of which 92% were filed by women.4 These figures are consistent with 2009 data from the Public Prosecutor’s Office, which registered 16,492 allegations of numerous manifestations of violence against women in that year, with 74.5% related to domestic violence and intra-family violence, and 17.1% related to sexual offences.5
In its last review of Honduras in 2007, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (Committee) noted in its Concluding Observations “continued concern about the prevalence of many forms of violence against women, including sexual abuse against women and girls, particularly incestuous abuse of girls, as well as rape, domestic violence and femicide.”6 The Committee further noted concern “that Honduran women may be compelled to migrate because of violence against women.”7
In accordance with CEDAW general recommendation 19, the Committee called upon Honduras to “ensure that all forms of violence against women are criminalized; that women and girls who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection; and that perpetrators are prosecuted and punished.”8 The Committee further urged Honduras to allocate sufficient resources for the effective functioning of plans and mechanisms to address all forms of violence against women and girls, in addition to monitoring the application, by law enforcement and judicial officials, of relevant legal measures for the benefit of women victims of violence and ensure that officials who fail to properly apply such measures are appropriately sanctioned.9
The Committee also called upon Honduras to ratify the Optional Protocol to the CEDAW. Although the Honduran government states that they have compelled the competent national authorities to ratify the OP-CEDAW,10 as of the submission of this report, Honduras has neither signed nor ratified the OP-CEDAW.11
Legal Reform and Implementation of Measures to Address Gender-based Violence
In 1997, Honduras adopted a special law to guarantee women their right to live free from violence, particularly from domestic violence. This law was amended in 2006 and 2013. This Law against domestic violence also includes economic violence, such as measures taken by the aggressor to wipe out the victim’s economic means of subsistence and/or damage property that may belong to both partners or just to the victim. While the law criminalizes domestic violence and penalizes perpetrators with between two and four years imprisonment, “the only legal sanctions for the first offense of domestic abuse is community service and 24-hour preventive detention if the violator is caught in the act.”12
Since its last review by the Committee, Honduras has amended its Criminal Code and added the crime of femicide,13as well as adding a provision that makes the commission of a crime with hatred or contempt on the basis of sex or gender an aggravating circumstance.14 Honduras has also taken some measures to implement laws that protect women from violence, creating a Femicide Unit within the Directorate-General of Criminal Investigation15 as well as establishing Domestic Violence Offices at all departmental headquarters.16 Additional measures have been taken by the Honduran government to improve the collection of statistics related to and services for victims of violence against women.
Despite Some Efforts to Address Gender-based Violence, Conditions Have Worsened for Women in Honduras
While Honduras has established several laws and mechanisms to protect women from violence, but in reality, little has changed on the ground for victims of gender-based violence since the last review by the Committee. In fact, the Committee’s concern expressed in the 2007 Concluding Observations that violence would force women to flee Honduras has become a reality.
In its case intake process, The Advocates has seen a dramatic increase in the number of Honduran women who have fled gender-based violence and in order to seek asylum in the United States.17 Each case is different, but their experiences confirm that the legal system and policies in place in Honduras are not protecting women from gender-based violence or providing victims with the necessary support and services. Moreover, the legal system and policies fail to hold perpetrators accountable.
Honduran women have experience gender-based violence at the hands of many people. Girls face gender-based violence from both relatives and strangers. One woman reported how as cousin attempted to rape her on three occasions, when she was between the ages of 6 and 13. Another woman related how a wealthy older man relentlessly harassed her for 10 months when she was a 16-year-old girl, waiting outside her school, calling her, sending her a letter, and telling her that he wanted her. After 10 months, she stopped attending school because of the harassment.
Young women face domestic violence from intimate partners. Several women reported that their intimate partners beat them in front of their young children. Several women reported being repeatedly raped by their boyfriends. A woman reported that her boyfriend forcibly dragged her out of buildings when he wanted to speak with her. A woman’s boyfriend came home drunk, pulled out a gun, started shooting, and eventually hit the woman, causing her to be hospitalized. A woman’s boyfriend dragged her out of a relative’s house, where she had been taking shelter, and tried to throw her over a fence. A woman’s boyfriend, who works for the government, beat her and raped her routinely. A woman’s boyfriend forbade her from talking to friends, neighbors, or family, broke her telephone to cut off her means of contact, and later locked her inside the house during the day to keep her from talking to others.
Gang members and others threaten, abduct, assault, and rape Honduran women. Gang members threatened to kill a woman after her family could no longer afford to pay protection money for the family business. Several gang members with guns, including a local crime leader, abducted a woman off the street, threw her into a truck, and took her to the leader’s house where he beat and raped her. She was abducted a total of 15 times in two months, and during each abduction was raped multiple times by the same man, who told her if she fought back the process would be bloodier for her. One perpetrator held an iron to his victim’s leg during an abduction and rape, leaving a severe burn and deep scar. Several local gang members attacked a woman in her own home, beating her and ripping her clothes off, and eventually shooting and killing her brother who had come to her rescue. A vindictive neighbor drugged a woman during a party, and she woke up the next day naked and with evidence that she had been raped, but with no memory of what had happened during the party.
Fleeing to another part of Honduras often provides no relief. A violent ex-boyfriend sent a text message to a woman who had relocated several times to other parts of Honduras to escape his abuse, threatening to kill the woman and her daughter. A gang leader tracked down his victim in a town several hours away, threatening her with a gun to her head that she could never escape him. A woman who fled her abuser to live near her parents began receiving phone threats from her abuser, who said that if she did not return or if she went to the police, he would shoot and kill her. She complied with his demands and continued to be abused. A woman who had fled to live with a relative in another city after being attacked by gang members learned that her attackers were looking for her and had been questioning her neighbors. She relocated to another city but feared that she would be recognized by gang members coming there to do drug business.
Witnesses and others who know about the violence do nothing to stop it or to report it to authorities. The brothers of a victim of sexual assault from another family member blamed her for the incident and beat her with a belt. A victim of sexual assault within the family told her parents, but they did not believe her. Neighbors witnessed a member of the Honduran military routinely beat his girlfriend outside the home and heard her screams for help when he routinely beat and raped her indoors, yet they did nothing. A woman who had been repeatedly beaten, raped, and threatened by her boyfriend told her mother about the abuse, but the mother did nothing. A woman’s family members blamed her for the abuse her intimate partner was inflicting on her and their children. A woman’s brother visited the woman’s home when she was being beaten by her boyfriend, but the brother simply left and did not interfere or report the events to the police.The family of one woman who had been a victim of domestic violence refused to help her because she had gone back to her abuser after other beatings. An abuser’s family member once tried to intervene, but the abuser told him it was not his business so he stopped.
Women do not call the police for fear of retribution, particularly when their perpetrators are gang leaders or well-connected politically. One politically powerful perpetrator threatened to harm his victim’s family if she told anyone. A woman feared reporting her intimate partner’s abuse to the police because his family was powerful and friendly with the police. A woman whose abuser was politically well-connected feared that he would try to take her sons away from her. An abuser called his victim, who had fled, and threatened that if she went to the police, he would shoot and kill her.
Even when women do turn to local law enforcement, they receive no support. A woman with several young children who experienced domestic violence called the police on several occasions, but they did nothing. After one incident, the police arrested the perpetrator but he was released after someone in his family posted bail.
Instead of providing protection, police and other systems actors often encourage reconciliation with the abuser. One woman reported how her partner consistently and violently hit her during her pregnancy, causing her to fall and have a miscarriage. After the woman informed the police about the violent abuse she experienced, the police recommended that she try to reconcile with her partner.
Honduran women experience further gender-based violence during their flight from Honduras. A guide for a group of migrants separated out a teenage girl who was traveling alone and raped her repeatedly over the course of five days. A man offered to help a woman cross a river and then raped her in front of her two-year-old child.
Gender-based Violence Continues to Increase in Honduras
The experiences of The Advocates’ female asylum clients reflect the failure of the Honduran justice system actors to protect victims of domestic and sexual violence, as well as the fact that Honduran society does not expect law enforcement officials to respond adequately to complaints of violence against women. In general, domestic and sexual violence cases are handled with “systematic indifference of the police.”18 They also reflect that women are deterred from reporting rape cases because of the lack of response from law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Even when a rape case is investigated, the perpetrator is not always punished. In addition, many argue that systemic failures are related to the largely “institutionalized”19 violence against women in Honduras, which has an entrenched “machismo and patriarchal culture.”20
Gun Violence and Femicide
Honduras is one of the world’s most violent countries, with towering murder rates fuelled by guns. In 2014, the overall homicide rate was 56.74 per 100,000, and 76% of these killings were by firearms.21 In 2014, the femicide rate was 14.6 per 100,00022 and 71% of these killings were by firearms.23
Femicide rates are increasing “with an alarming rate.”24 According to the Honduran Ombudsman, approximately 3,923 women have died in a violent way between 2002 and 2013. From 2005 to 2012, violent deaths of women steadily increased, from 175 deaths per year to 606 deaths per year, an increase of 246.3% over eight years. In 2015, 1 woman was murdered every 16 hours in Honduras.25
While Honduras has established a Special Prosecutor on Women, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women recently reported that Honduras has a 95% impunity rate for sexual violence and femicide crimes.26 Moreover, “the lack of accountability for violations of human rights of women is the norm rather than the exception” in Honduras.27 For example, out of the total 453 violent deaths of women recorded in 2014, prosecutors have issued only 10 summons.28This inaction has impeded progress in the prevention, investigation, and sanction of such crimes.
While the increase in femicides in Honduras has been widely publicized, other expressions of violence against women, such as domestic violence, remain in the shadows.29 Honduras has specific legislation addressing domestic violence, but the law does not provide effective protection or redress from such violence. The law criminalizes domestic violence, but the only legal sanctions for the first and second offenses of domestic abuse are community service and twenty-four hour preventive detention if the violator is caught in the act.
Domestic violence is treated leniently and provisions are generally not enforced by the justice system. As of August 2013, the U.S. State Department reported that the Office of the Special Prosecutor for Women received 4,903 complaints of domestic abuse.30 The CEDAW Committee noted that in 2006, the resolution rate of domestic violence cases was 2.55%. The failure of authorities to exercise due diligence in investigating, prosecuting and punishing perpetrators of violence against women contributes to an environment of impunity within the country.
In addition, according to the U.S. State Department, the government operates 3 domestic violence shelters in Honduras but provides insufficient financial and other resources to enable them to operate effectively.31 Because women lack access to shelters for victims of domestic violence, they feel additional pressure to remain in dangerous situations. They generally have no place to go other than to the homes of family members, friends, or neighbors—places where they often face continued threats and violence from their abusers.
Further, as part of a 2014 restructuring process, the Honduran government took actions that impact survivors of violence by downgrading the status of the National Institute for Women, cutting funding to women’s rights groups and abolishing the police emergency telephone line for female victims of violence32 In 2013, article 23 of the Law against Domestic Violence was amended to restrict media coverage cases of domestic violence. Due to complaints from human rights groups, the amendment was recently reversed.33
In 2014, a total of 2,897 sexual violence complaints were filed, amounting to approximately one complaint every 3 hours.34 During the period from 2011 to 2014, 4,666 (32.3%) of the cases of sexual violence were perpetrated by an acquaintance; the perpetrator was the victim’s partner in 2,870 (19.9%) of cases.35 These figures, although consistent with reports since 2010, likely represent only a fraction of the problem.
The right of women survivors of sexual violence to access to justice is practically nonexistent, given the fact that perpetrators are not held accountable in 94.5% of all cases.36 In 2014, for example, only 276 cases out of 2,621 were resolved.37 Non-governmental organizations in Honduras criticize the new institutional bodies created to address violence against women as being largely unresponsive, gendered and failing to prioritize sexual violence in their agenda,38 resulting in widespread impunity.
The number of complaints lodged for the disappearance of women jumped from 91 in 2008 to 347 in 2013.39 From 2011 to 2014, women’s disappearances increased by 216%.40 Moreover, there have been 155 additional complaints filed for crimes that imply disappearances, such as unjust deprivation of liberty, kidnapping, and human trafficking.41
Suggested Questions for the Honduran Government
What steps is the State Party taking to end impunity for femicide, domestic violence, and sexual violence by strengthening the criminal justice response to gender-based violence, in particular measures to support its capacity to investigate, prosecute, and punish all forms of such crime and provide reparation and/or compensation to victims and their families?
What plans are there for a comprehensive program to protect women in Honduras from violence, including coordinated community response public education, aggressive prosecutions, and training for law enforcement, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and educators?
What is being done to ensure that laws, policies, procedures, and practices pertaining to decisions on the arrest, detention, and terms of any form of release of the perpetrator take into account the need for the safety of the victim and other people related through family, socially, or otherwise, and that such procedures also prevent further acts of violence?
What plans are there to reform the Ley de Control de Armas de Fuego, Municiones, Explosivos y otros Similares and to prohibit the acquisition, possession, and carrying of firearms by people subject to complaints of family or gender-based violence, regardless of whether a criminal conviction has been recorded?
What steps has the State Party taken toward enacting legislation that:
mandates that police, prosecutors, and the judiciary investigate the level of risk to domestic violence victims when determining bail and other situations;
allows victims of gender-based violence to bring civil lawsuits against family member perpetrators, regardless of whether criminal charges are also brought;
provides effective sanctions against all authorities who do not comply with the provisions of the legislation in order to ensure that officials charged with implementing the legislation fulfill their responsibilities;
allows survivors to bring civil lawsuits against individuals and state entities that fail to prevent, investigate, or punish acts of gender-based violence;
provides shelters for victims of gender-based violence with sufficient and regular funding to realistically carry out their work?
Is the State Party taking action to establish crisis centers throughout the country for victims of sexual abuse and domestic violence and to establish, fund, and coordinate services such as toll-free information lines, professional multidisciplinary counseling, crisis intervention services, and support groups in order to benefit women who are victims of violence and their children?
What steps is the State Party taking to ensure gender-equitable representation in the police force and other agencies of the justice system, particularly at the decision-making and managerial levels?
1 Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women Finalizes Country Mission to Honduras and Calls for Urgent Action to Address the Culture of Impunity for Crimes against Women and Girls, July 10, 2014, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=14847&LangID=E, last visited Sept. 11, 2014.
5 Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Acceso a la Justicia para Mujeres Víctimas de Violencia Sexual en Mesoamérica, Organización de los Estados Americanos, OEA/Ser.L/V/II. Doc. 63, Dec. 9, 2011, ¶ 76.
6 UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Concluding observations: Honduras, para 18, CEDAW/C/HON/CO/6 (10 August 2007).
8 Id at para 19.
10 Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de la Republica de Honduras, Informe de Medio Termino sobre el Avance de Cumplimiento de las Recomendaciones Formuladas al Estado de Honduras en el Marco del Examen Periodico Universal, V Vigésimosegunda Sesión del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, Tegucigalpa, Mar. 18, 2013, at 7.
11See< http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/protocol/sigop.htm> last accessed January 20, 2016
12 US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014: Honduras (June 2015), available at: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236698
13 Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de la Republica de Honduras, Informe de Medio Termino sobre el Avance de Cumplimiento de las Recomendaciones Formuladas al Estado de Honduras en el Marco del Examen Periodico Universal, V Vigésimosegunda Sesión del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, Tegucigalpa, Mar. 18, 2013, at 19.
14 Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de la Republica de Honduras, Informe de Medio Termino sobre el Avance de Cumplimiento de las Recomendaciones Formuladas al Estado de Honduras en el Marco del Examen Periodico Universal, V Vigésimosegunda Sesión del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, Tegucigalpa, Mar. 18, 2013, at 3.
15 Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Consideration of reports by States parties under Article 18 of the Convention : Seventh and eighth reports of states parties to be presented in 2012; Honduras, CEDAW/C/HND/7-8, Para 170
16Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de la Republica de Honduras, Informe de Medio Termino sobre el Avance de Cumplimiento de las Recomendaciones Formuladas al Estado de Honduras en el Marco del Examen Periodico Universal, V Vigésimosegunda Sesión del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, Tegucigalpa, Mar. 18, 2013, at 18.
17The information contained in the following nine paragraphs is compiled from intake interviews and other interviews conducted with Honduran women between January 2014 and August 2015. Some of the details of the cases have been removed to maintain confidentiality and to protect the identity of the women and their families.
18 Annie Kelly, Honduran police turn a blind eye to soaring number of ‘femicides,’ Guardian, May 28, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/29/honduras-blind-eye-femicides, last visited Sept. 11, 2014. See also: http://www.s21.com.gt/internacionales/2015/11/17/cada-16-horas-muere-una-mujer-violencia-machista-honduras Nov 17, 2015
19 Deborah Hastings, In Central America, women killed ‘with impunity’ just because they’re women, New York Daily News, Jan. 10,2014, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/femicide-rise-central-america-article-1.1552233, last visited Jan.14, 2016
20Agencia EFE, Cada 16 horas muere una mujer por violencia machista en Honduras, Siglo21.com.gt, Nov. 17, 2015, http://www.s21.com.gt/internacionales/2015/11/17/cada-16-horas-muere-una-mujer-violencia-machista-honduras, last visited Jan. 21, 2016
21La Prensa, El 76% de los crímenes en Honduras se cometen con armas de fuego, 6 January 2016, available at See http://www.laprensa.hn/sucesos/917406-410/el-76-de-los-cr%C3%ADmenes-en-honduras-se-cometen-con-armas-de. Numbers for 2014 represented a slight improvement over 2013. See Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras (UNAH) and Instituto Universitario en Democracia, Paz y Seguridad (IUDPAS), IUDPAS, Boletin 32. Enero a Diciembre de 2013, Febrero de 2014, http://www.iudpas.org/pdf/Boletines/Nacional/NEd32EneDic2013.pdf last visited Sept. 15, 2014.
23 Organization of American States, Preliminary Observations concerning the Human Rights Situation in Honduras, (5 December 2014), available at: http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2014/146A.asp.
See also Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras (UNAH) and Instituto Universitario en Democracia, Paz y Seguridad (IUDPAS), IUDPAS, Boletín Especial sobre Muerte Violenta de Mujeres, Boletín Enero - Diciembre de 2013, Edición Especial No. 17, Enero de 2014. http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2014/146A.asp
24 Agencia AFP, Femicidio en Honduras alcanzó niveles de epidemia, El Heraldo, June 24, 2015, http://www.elheraldo.hn/pais/852586-214/femicidio-en-honduras-alcanz%C3%B3-niveles-de-epidemia, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
25Catty Calderon, Honduras lanza lanza su campaña “El femicidio es la más alta expresión de violencia contra las mujeres,” Facción, Nov. 18, 2015, http://faccionlatina.org/project/honduras-lanza-lanza-su-campana-el-femicidio-es-la-mas-alta-expresion-de-violencia-contra-las-mujeres/#_ftn1, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
26 Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, supra note 1.
27 Center for Gender and Refugee Studies, Thousands of Girls and Women are Fleeing Rape, Sexual Violence and Torture in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/talking_points_and_stories, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
28Organization of American States, Preliminary Observations concerning the Human Rights Situation in Honduras, Dec. 5, 2014, http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2014/146A.asp, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
29Discriminación y poca investigación, causas de violencia género en Honduras, La Tribuna, June 10, 2014, http://www.latribuna.hn/2014/06/10/discriminacion-y-poca-investigacion-causas-de-violencia-genero-en-honduras/, last visited Sept. 11, 2014.
30 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013: Honduras, at17, available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220453
31 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014: Honduras, available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236698.
32Sorcha Pollak, Anyone can murder a woman in Honduras and nothing will happen, The Irish Times, May 11, 2015, http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/anyone-can-murder-a-woman-in-honduras-and-nothing-will-happen-1.2207043, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
33Conexihon, Medios de comunicación hondureños pueden informar sobre casos de violencia doméstica, January 20, 2016, available at: http://conexihon.hn/site/noticia/libertad-de-expresi%C3%B3n/medios-de-comunicaci%C3%B3n-hondure%C3%B1os-pueden-informar-sobre-casos-de.
34 Centro de Derechos de Mujeres -- CDM, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres, Jul. 2015, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/violencia/Violencia-Sexual-HN-2010-2014.pdf, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
36Centro de Derechos de Mujeres et al., Feminist Organizations Report: Status of Violence Against Women in Honduras, Submitted to the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, in her visit to Honduras, June 2014, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/derechos_humanos/Violence-Women-Honduras-RapporteurONU-June2014.pdf, last visited Sept. 11, 2014.
37Centro de Derechos de Mujeres -- CDM, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres, Jul. 2015, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/violencia/Violencia-Sexual-HN-2010-2014.pdf, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
38Centro de Derechos de Mujeres -- CDM, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres, Jul. 2015, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/violencia/Violencia-Sexual-HN-2010-2014.pdf, last visited Jan. 21, 2016
39Centro de Derechos de Mujeres et al., Feminist Organizations Report: Status of Violence Against Women in Honduras, Submitted to the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, in her visit to Honduras, June 2014, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/derechos_humanos/Violence-Women-Honduras-RapporteurONU-June2014.pdf, last visited Sept. 11, 2014.
40 Centro de Derechos de Mujeres -- CDM, Observatorio de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres, Jul. 2015, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/violencia/Violencia-Sexual-HN-2010-2014.pdf, last visited Jan. 21, 2016.
41Centro de Derechos de Mujeres et al., Feminist Organizations Report: Status of Violence Against Women in Honduras, Submitted to the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, in her visit to Honduras, June 2014, http://www.derechosdelamujer.org/tl_files/documentos/derechos_humanos/Violence-Women-Honduras-RapporteurONU-June2014.pdf, last visited Sept. 11, 2014