15. la Eucaristía __________________________________________
The Spanish verb hay translates to “there is” or “there are” in English. It can be used in questions like ¿Hay un restaurante por aquí? which means, “Is there a restaurant around here?” You can also use hay in a statement like Hay dos bancos en esta calle (There are two banks on this street).
F Actividad III. Look at this simple map of a city and answer the questions whether or not certain buildings are on each road using hay.
Calle del Obispo Golfín
Calle del General Marvá
Calle del Cristo
Calle del Rey Fernando
Calle San Juan
e.g. ¿Hay un estadio en la calle del Cristo? No, no hay un estadio en la calle del Cristo.
16. ¿Hay un banco en la calle San Juan? _______________________________________
19. ¿__________________________________________________________________? Sí, hay un hospital en la calle del Rey Fernando.
20. ¿Hay un aeropuerto en la calle San Juan? ___________________________________.
You should already recognize the verb estar from phrases like ¿Cómo estás? (“How are you?”). This verb is also used to describe the location of people and places. For example, ¿Dónde está la Estatua de la Libertad? (“Where is the Statue of Liberty?”) and the response, La Estatua de la Libertad está en Nueva York (“The Statue of Liberty is in New York”). Below is the conjugation of the verb.
F Actividad IV. Look at this simple map of a city and answer the questions whether or not certain buildings are on each road using estar.
Calle del Obispo Golfín
Calle del General Marvá
Calle del Cristo
Calle del Rey Fernando
Calle San Juan
e.g. ¿Dónde está el estadio? Está en la calle del General Marvá
21. ¿Dónde está la iglesia? ______________________________________
23. ¿___________________________________________________________________? Está en la calle del Rey Fernando.
Observe the following dialogue between two strangers on the street:
A: Perdone, ¿dónde está la iglesia?
B: Está muy cerca; está a la izquierda de esta calle.
A: Excuse me, where is the church?
B: It’s very close; it’s on the left of this street.
Estar can also be used with adverbs and prepositions to describe the proximity of places. For example, El banco está muy lejos de aquí, which means “the bank is very far from here.” Here are some other examples of the vocabulary in context.
El estadio está a la derecha. The stadium is to the right.
La iglesia está en frente de la escuela. The church is in front of the school.
Allí hay un restaurante. There is a restaurant there.
El aeropuerto está muy lejos. The airport is very far.
Actividad V. Form sentences using the vocabulary from this unit and adverbs of proximity.
As you may already know, all nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine in gender. Masculine nouns are preceded by the prefix el and usually end in –o like el estadio. Feminine nouns are usually preceded by the prefix la and often end in –a like la maleta. However, there are exceptions to this rule like el mapa or la moto. Other nouns end in a different vowel like –e and many others end in a consonant. While there are patterns to determine a noun’s gender, learning them with their article is a good way to start memorizing nouns as masculine or feminine.1
ActividadVI. Sort this unit’s vocabulary words into two charts: masculine and feminine. You should have eight words in each group.
Making a noun plural works just like English, you add an –s to the end of words that end in a vowel. So a word like coche becomes coches in the plural. Words that end in a consonant add –es in the plural form: tren becomes trenes. The definite articles el/la also change in the plural: el becomes los and la becomes las. Some words like avión lose the accent in the plural: aviones.
el bus los buses the bus the buses
la moto las motos the moped the mopeds
Actividad VII. Determine whether the following nouns are singular or plural and masculine or feminine.
While the definite articles el, la, los and las are used to describe specific objects there are also indefinite articles un and una used in a general sense. You may have noticed un and una look like the Spanish word for “one” uno. That’s because these words translate to the English words “a” or “an.” Notice the difference between “There is a bank,” and “That is the bank.”
A: Perdone, ¿hay un banco por aquí?
B: Sí, el banco está en frente del hospital.
A: Excuse me, is there a bank around here?
B: Yes, the bank is in front of the hospital.
The indefinite article also has plural forms: unos (masculine)and unas (feminine). These words translate to “some” or “a few.” For example, Hay unos estudiantes en la clase which means “There are a few students in the class.”
Actividad IX. Write questions using hay un/una and responding with the noun in the plural.
e.g. ¿Hay un banco en Madrid? No, hay dos bancos en Madrid.
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. For example, Saint Martin was born in Lima, Peru. Saint Martin became a Dominican brother at age 24. Saint Martin took care of the sick. Saint Martin also took care of animals. Saint Martin set up a school for orphans. Saint Martin has a parish named after him in Poughkeepsie.
Instead of repeating the same name over and over, we use the pronoun “he” to make our sentences shorter and to make them sound better. Modern Standard English has seven personal pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we and they. Spanish, however, has twelve personal pronouns, making distinctions for gender and honorary titles. They are as follows:
Yo : I. Unlike in English, the Spanish yo is only capitalized when at the beginning of a sentence.
Tú : You. Tú is only used when talking to one person; it is the singular “you.” In most Spanish speaking countries, tú is informal, meaning that people use this word when talking to friends, family members and anyone else around your age whom you consider an equal.
Él : He. Always remember to place the accent mark on the e.
Ella : She.
Usted : You. Usted also means “you” yet it is reserved for a single individual for whom the speaker has respect. It could be translated as “you sir” or “you madam” and is used in professional situations, especially towards people you don’t know very well or who are much older and in a position of authority.
Nosotros : We. Unlike English, Spanish specifies the word “we” to mean either a male “we” or a female “we.” Use nosotros if the group is either all masculine, or has at least one male in it.
Nosotras : We. This “we” is used only when the group consists of all women, no exceptions.
Vosotros : You. Unlike tú and usted that are used when speaking to a single individual, vosotros is used when speaking to two or more individuals. Like tú, vosotros is often used informally when talking to groups of friends and family, but can be used when talking to any multitude of people. Vosotros is only used in European Spanish.
Vosotras : You. Like nosotras, vosotras is used when speaking to two or more women. There cannot be a single man in the group to use this pronoun. Vosotras is only used in European Spanish.
Ellos : They. Ellos can refer to either a group of all men or to a mixed group of men and women.
Ellas : They. Ellas is only used when speaking about a group of girls.
Ustedes : You. In Spanish America, ustedes is both a formal and informal “you,” used when speaking to at least two individuals. In Spain, ustedes is falling into disuse and is only used politely in very formal situations.
To review, Spanish has four words that translate to “you” in English: tú, usted, vosotros and ustedes. Additionally, the plural “you,” “we” and “they” have gender specific pronouns: nosotros/nosotras, vosotros/vosotras, ellos/ellas. It’s important to understand Spanish pronouns because they are the first step in sentence formation.
Below is a chart that will continuously be used in your studies as you advance in Spanish courses. A quick review on person: first person refers to the self, second person is the person to whom you are speaking and third person is used to reference someone who is not present.
Nosotros (We, masculine/mixed)
Nosotras (We, feminine)
Tú (You, informal)
Vosotros (You, masculine/mixed)
Vosotras (You, feminine)
Usted (You, formal)
Ellos (They, masculine/mixed)
Ellas (They feminine)
Ustedes (You, formal)
Actividad X. Determine which pronouns would be used to speak to the following people.
48. un doctor ______________________________________________________
49. María y Lucía ___________________________________________________
50. yo y un estudiante ________________________________________________
51. Señor Alonso y Señora Jiménez _____________________________________
53. tú, Diego y Manuel _______________________________________________
Conjugation is the joining together of a subject pronoun with a verb. You may not have noticed, but in English we conjugate by making a distinction between “I eat” and “He eats.” The verb changes depending on who the subject is. A better example is the verb “to be,” which conjugates as: “I am,” “you are,” “he is.” In this case, the conjugation is much more noticeable as each pronoun has a distinct verb. While Modern Standard English’s conjugations are subtle, Spanish is much more complex.
To begin, we’ll start with the verb tener, which means “to have.” Here is the verb’s conjugation in the present tense.
tener = to have
(You all have)
(They/You all(f) have)
Below are some examples of the verb tener with vocabulary from this unit.
1) ¿Tenéis los billetes? No, no tenemos los billetes.
Do you have the tickets? No, we don’t have the tickets.
2) ¿Tienes bicicleta o moto? Tengo bicicleta.
Do you have a bicycle or a moped? I have a bicycle.
3) Él tiene dos maletas y ella tiene una mochila.
He has two suitcases and she has one backpack.
In examples 1 and 2, you notice there is no word for “do” in Spanish to ask a question. In Spanish, the tone of one’s voice will raise at the end of the sentence to signify an interrogative; in writing an upside-down question mark ¿ is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
In example 2, you notice there is no word for “a” in the response Tengo bicicleta. Unlike in English, in Spanish the indefinite article (un/una) is not used with the verb “to have” unless it is used to specify ownership of one numerical unit of that object.
In the first two examples, the subject pronouns are not used to ask a question. The person is understood from the distinct conjugation of the verb. However, in cases of ambiguity the pronouns are used to clarify like in example 3.
There are also many expressions in Spanish that use tener when in English, the verb “to be” is used instead. Here is a list of examples: