We use the ph-meter. The ph-meter is accurate



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Guía de Trabajos Prácticos – Inglés II – Cátedra de Inglés Técnico-

Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas – Universidad Nacional del Litoral



UNIDAD I
SUBORDINACIÓN
Partiendo de dos o más oraciones simples:


  • WE USE THE PH-METER.

  • THE PH-METER IS ACCURATE.

Puede formarse una Oración Compleja:


WE USE THE PH-METER THAT IS ACCURATE.
Una de las oraciones originales (cláusula principal) incluye, como parte gramatical constitutiva, a la otra (cláusula subordinada).
Las cláusulas subordinadas están introducidas por subordinantes :
THAT- WHICH- WHO- WHOM- WHEN- WHERE- WHY – WHOSE - HOW

CLÁUSULAS ADJETIVAS:
Siempre modifican a un sustantivo, apareciendo después de ellos.
Ejemplos:


  1. An instrument is a device for not only measuring but also sometimes recording and controlling the value of a quantity which is being observed.

  2. People who consume more calcium have no denser bones than those

who consume less calcium.

  1. Malignant tumours arise from a sequence of events whose components have never been decisively named.

4)Those points where portions of two chromosomes are joined together can

lie near to oncogenes.

5) In this case, most antibodies are synthesized during a period when the culture shows a decline stage.

6) Numerous studies about cell nutrient requirements have analyzed the reasons why well-known culture media formulations have become unpopular.


Ejemplos con Preposición + which:
1) This is the theory with which we obtained good results.

2) The devise has a system of branching tubes through which the air penetrates the lungs.


3) This experiment gives an idea of the rate at which organs lose the ability to make proteins.


4) The method that I describe here is one in which powerful electrostatic forces propel and direct the pesticide onto crop foliage.

5) In a few heat exchangers in which trouble sources are often encountered in cooling systems, the absence of any provision for cleaning fouling tubes call for better quality of the cooling water.

6) For attaining best results in processes in which suspensions are being filtered, a bed of increasingly smaller pore size is recommended.

7) Recent developments in testing chemicals for their mutagenic properties in mammals have opened up new possibilities of improving the criteria by which experimental animal tests can be used to assess potential hazards to man.

8) In many experimental carcinogenesis studies, there was always the problem about the method with which work progress had to be measured.

Omisión del Subordinante en Cláusulas Adjetivas:


  1. We found the error that caused you many problems.

  2. The error that we found caused you many problems.


That actúa como nexo y sujeto de la cláusula en 1.

That actúa sólo como nexo en 2.
Sólo cuando actúa como Nexo se lo puede omitir
- THE ERROR ( ) WE FOUND CAUSED YOU MANY PROBLEMS.

Vc Vc


Ejemplos:
1) Experiences they have been performing are somewhat incompatible with the objectives they proposed originally.

2) Headache sufferers we know all over the world still crave for attaining more therapeutic progress for attenuating their pains.



  1. The kind of pollution we are talking about may be manifest only in altered taste people slightly detect or high concentrations of relatively “good” chemicals people consider non-toxic.

  2. The mechanism by which surface-active agents alter the surface energy a solid or a liquid possesses is attributed to the dual nature of either the molecules or ions of these substances.

  3. The mathematical theories these researchers had been developing are now being practically verified.

  4. The terrestrial ecosystem scientists have recently defined distinguishes the complex of all ecosystems of the land surfaces of the Earth from both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  5. The energy within the biological systems we have been investigating is used to power life processes the same organisms generate.


CONTRACCIONES EN CLÁUSULAS ADJETIVAS:
a) suprimimos subordinante y parte verbal conjugada


will be

were induced by radiation

had been

could be

We know the data on mutants which



sensitive to radiation

----------------------



are capable of spoiling food

----------------------

under control

----------------------


Los elementos en negrita son los que se omiten.
b) Reemplazamos subordinante + verbo conjugado por verbo en “ING”.
* An experiment involving sensory evaluation of food was planned.



which involved






En este caso, se recomienda siempre reconstruir la cláusula.
Ejemplos:

1)The food components entering the digestive tract are not usually ready to be taken up by the body.

2) Carbohydrates occurring in all cells of all living organisms form a group of organic compounds.

3) Iron and sulphur, elements possessing very different properties, can be finely divided and mixed.

4) The fibers carrying signals giving rise to pain are those of small diameter and are therefore of relatively slow conducting velocity.

5) In animal cells, protein synthesis occurs both on poliribosomes free in the cytoplasm and on those bound to membranes inside the cell.

6) Toxicologists have devised and demonstrated a way of measuring directly the dose received by workers exposed to some chemicals suspected of inducing cancers.

7) The chief cells of the gastric mucosal glands secrete an inactive protein called pepsinogen.

8) Proteins composed of alpha-amino acids are the most diverse class of chemicals in living tissue.

CLÁUSULAS SUSTANTIVAS:
Ocupan el lugar de un sustantivo:
- Sujeto:

[What we found ] was a variety of surface reactions


- Objeto de verbo (después de un verbo):

We found [that there was a variety of surface reactions]


- Objeto de preposición (después de una preposición):

We were surprised by [what the researchers had done]



Ejemplos:

1) What has been said about the risk of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation would have considerably less weight in this case.

2) They suggest this technique could provide a means of treating several human cancers that resist present treatment.

3) That the cell nucleus may be damaged over a period of years is a fourth possibility that concerns us all.

4) What they did was to compare the test tube production of RNA templates from both types of cells.

5) The team compared the bacterial iron with various types of inorganic iron to see what exactly the cell had made.




Omisión del Subordinante en Cláusulas Sustantivas



Ejemplos:


  1. Researchers have to note ultraviolet and x-radiation from conventional sources have been used extensively for decades in research in many disciplines.

  2. Text books say tautomerism has been defined as the reversible interconversion of structural isomers of organic chemical compounds.

  3. We also assume systems approach an equilibrium state by acting by themselves.


  1. We know the mechanism by which surface-active agents alter the surface energy of either a solid or a liquid is attributed to the dual nature of either the molelcules or ions of these substances.

  2. We think a body has a minimum amount of motion energy. In the 19th Century, this minimum was thought of as the zero energy, but modern theories and experiments show this minimum is greater than zero.


EJERCITACIÓN
I) En el siguiente texto seleccione el subordinante que corresponda a la cláusula en cuestión.

THE DISCOVERY OF FILTERABLE VIRUSES

In 1892 D. J. Ivanovsky found (which/that/what) an infectious extract from tobacco plants with mosaic disease retained its infectivity after passage through a filter able to prevent the passage of bacteria. He assumed (that/when/what) the infectious agent was a small microorganism. During the following two or three decades, it was shown (where/why/that) many major diseases of both plants and animals are caused by similar infectious agents, so small that they cannot be seen with the light microscope. Since the basic criterion (whom/who/that) served to differentiate these forms from the more familiar microbial agents of disease was their ability to pass through filters, the pores of (that/who/which) were sufficiently fine to retain even very small bacteria, they came to be known collectively as “filterable viruses”. With the passage of time, the adjective “filterable” was gradually dropped, and the word virus became a specific group designation for these ultramicroscopic, filter-passing infectious agents.



Most of the scientists (whom/who/which) studied viruses during the first decades of the twentieth century assumed (what/that/when) they were simply another class of microorganisms, (which/who/whose) differed in size but not in any really fundamental biological respect from the better-known kinds of microorganisms. Studies of their behaviour in the laboratory led to the conclusion (why/that/what) they were obligate intracellular parasites of host cells within (what/that/which) they were able to multiply. However, since obligate intracellular parasitism is also a character of some other microorganisms, this could not be considered a distinctive property of viruses.
II) En las oraciones que están a continuación hay subordinantes omitidos. Señale con una flecha () el lugar en que deberían estar.


  1. Some colleagues have proposed a new theory could be developed to explain the causation of headache.

  2. Researchers must know their results will be used in both another researches and industry.

  3. Every person we tested had a different sensitivity to various classes of odorous chemicals.

  4. Water people consume needs to undergo treatment potabilizing plants perform to qualify it for the intended application.

  5. That thrombin has at least two distinct effects on human antihemophilic factor has been clearly demonstrated by our studies.

  6. The behavior of individual atoms we evaluate in the lab can now be clearly demonstrated.

  7. How various constituents of the blood such as vitamins gain entry into the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) or into the brain is not clear.

  8. The differences they found in the measurements were caused by the incidence of magnetic fields.

  9. The physical importance of the constant they have defined is being evaluated in food processing research.

  10. Our data, as well as other studies, strongly indicate ecological degradation has occurred in China as a consequence of air pollution and acidification.

  11. Numerical determinations we did were verified against more complete data sets from practical experiences.

  12. The units atomic quantities defined required special measurement devices.

  13. Theories researchers had been developing are being practically verified.

  14. Proteins people require could be easily obtained by treating most of the waste the same people generate.

  15. Things they do solve problems.

  16. Theories researchers use need control device development.

  17. Researchers have yet to construct a physical model science needs for evaluating reaction mechanisms science itself generates.

  18. By mimicking the way green plants convert sunshine into chemical energy we might get the reason why this process occurs naturally. There are two main photosynthetic systems we had been evaluating lately: photosynthetic bacteria, which reduce CO2 human beings generate to carbohydrates, but cannot oxidize water to oxygen; and green plants, which can oxidize water to oxygen. This oxidation step we are interested in is the way we could produce hydrogen from water to replace natural gas industry requires.



III) Traduzca el siguiente texto:



TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM: THE PLACE WE LIVE TODAY
The terrestrial ecosystem scientists have recently defined distinguishes the complex of all ecosystems of the Earth surface from both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It encompasses ecosystems which exist not only on the continents but islands of the world and comprehends a series of dynamic open interaction systems that include both living forms and their non living environment, as well as the activities, interrelations, chemical reactions, and physical changes these forms suffer. Energy that enters these systems we have been investigating - chiefly in the form of sunlight the systems receive – not only circulates through the systems we are interested in but powers life processes organisms generate, influences either rate or nature – or both – not only of chemical reactions but physical changes as well, and is partially accumulated in the body of organisms and in other chemical and physical states which occur in the systems
IV)Arme oraciones complejas, utilizando cláusulas adjetivas y sustantivas, con las siguientes oraciones simples.
  1. We use clarification in the event of using river as source of raw water.

Clarification is the major treatment and it is normally applied to the water to ensure a treated-water turbidity lower than 20 ppm.

  1. The colors result from dyes and other industrial and processing sources. They cannot be measured by usual test procedures.


3) Under certain conditions, the scientist makes decisions about a problem to solve it immediately. He usually comes up with a quick determination without detailed data or time to obtain accurate information.
V) A DRUG UNDER TRIAL
The pharmaceutical company Hoffman-La Roche, Basel, recently presented to the press the results of clinical studies of its anti-obesity medicine orlistat that selectively limits the intestinal absorption of dietary fat. First clinical results showed a 60 % increase in weight loss in the orlistat patient group, when this was compared to a placebo-taking group.
Orlistat, a chemically synthesized derivative of lipstatin -a natural product of Streptomyces toxytricini- is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases which could be used to limit fat absorption. Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme which is required for the absorption of dietary triglycerides, and so inhibition of gastrointestinal lipases would prevent the triglycerides from being broken down into their constituent particles and the intact triglyceride would be excreted with the feces.

What the researchers did was to perform a combined analysis of 170 normal and obese subjects to study fat excretion after a mildly hipercaloric diet which contained between 50 to 80 mg of fat. The maximum percentage of ingested fat which was then excreted was 32%.

The second phase included a dose range study in which orlistat at 10 mg, 60 mg, or 120 mg was administered for 12 weeks after a four-week placebo lead-in period. Patients had been prescribed a diet that was approximately 500 Kcal less than their estimated dietary intake. Only the 120 mg dose produced a statistically significant weight loss (60%) compared with placebo. Lipid parameters were measured as a secondary efficacy parameter. Both the 60 mg and 120 mg orlistat doses produced statistically significant and clinically meaningful decreases in total and LDL cholesterol compared to placebo.

The most common adverse events were those that were related to the gastrointestinal system, which included

increased defecation, soft stools and fatty/oily stools.

A one year trial -for which patients were placed on a balanced diet which provided a caloric deficit of 600 Kcal/day- was conducted at obesity research centers through the United Kingdom. During the course of the study, those patients researchers had treated with orlistat lost significantly more weight than placebo patients and kept it off but placebo patients began to exhibit regain of lost weight.

According to the Roche research team, studies with potential new therapies should be sufficiently long to evaluate not only weight loss but also weight maintenance as well as the very long-term effects of prevention of weight regain.

The actual Phase III studies should be long enough to evaluate not only these effects but the ability of new therapies to modify risk factors which are associated with obesity. The results are now being evaluated in anticipation of filing for market approval worldwide during 1997.


1) Busque en el texto estos términos: fat - weight loss - placebo - lead-in period - trial - intake

Dé un vistazo al texto y proponga significados adecuados para ellos.
2) Busque en el texto palabras (una o más) cuyo significado se relacione con:


  • FAT (sust.)

  • PERFORM (verbo)

  • ADMINISTERED (verbo)

  • INHIBIT (verbo)

  • ANALYSIS (sust.)

  • TREATMENT (sust.)


3) Traduzca el texto y conteste las siguientes preguntas.
1) ¿Cuál es el efecto del orlistat sobre las lipasas intestinales?

2) ¿Qué efecto se espera sobre las lipasas pancreáticas?

3) ¿En cuántas etapas se realizó el estudio?

4) Mencione las principales características de cada una de ellas.

5) En su opinión, ¿los efectos adversos mencionados justificarían la suspensión de las

pruebas de este medicamento?








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