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  • Summary Chapter 6: Wiring standards

    Because there were networks that were constructed without any standard and each could not communicate the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1984 created the OSI reference model so that all networks have a design that was compatible with other networks and so able to communicate among themselves.

    Some of the organizations on global standards are:

    IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

     TIA: Association of Telecommunications Industry

     EIA: Electronic Industries Association

     ISO: International Organization for Standardization (creator of the OSI model) Underwriters Laboratories (an independent testing laboratory that sets safety standards for electrical equipment) Government agencies at various levels.

     IEC: National Institute for communication.

    Wiring standards and codes:
    The electrical codes are meant to protect people from hidden hazards that can be exposed wiring or other work that was not completed properly. A code provides a list of things to do and those that should not be performed, if the code is respected, the likelihood of serious problems will be low. If each structure respect the codes and standards, the world would be a safer place.

    The codes tend to be created by central authorities or expert panels. Then, depends on local authorities to accept them as law or not. Once adopted, the code is considered to law, and ignore it becomes a crime that is punished.

    The functions of the codes:
    The purpose of electrical codes to protect people and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity. The electrical codes are intended to provide the following:

     Protection against electric shock

     Protection against power failures, where the voltages are out of land routes to unpredictable ways, too unpredictable

    Protection against thermal effects of electric current

    Protection against over current

     Protection against overvoltage

    Why standards?

    Standards are sets of rules or procedures widely used or officially specified, and serve as a measure or a model of excellence. Standards can take many forms. They may be specified by a single supplier, or may be industry standards that support multi-vendor interoperability. Integrated cable plans developed by specific companies are called

    Structured Cable System (SCS). In general, SCS architecture offers the following:

    Standardized descriptions and configuration means backbone and horizontal wiring.

     Standard connection interfaces to the physical connection of the equipment.

     Consistent and uniform design that follows a system plan and core design principles.

     Proven components from start to finish to minimize the risk of incompatibility.

     The open architecture supports hardware and software from many vendors, including data terminals, analog and digital phones, personal computers, videoconferencing and host computers, as well as common systems equipment.

    Lower maintenance costs.

     Targeted training and certification. It helps to ensure that installers know what they do. The best practices and standards:
    The best practices are ways to perform job functions on the basis of research that help users while performing tasks. Many of the wiring standards include best practices tended, security, connection and testing of circuits
    wiring. Many of the standards can not be met without applying the above.

    The four major organizations that issue standards:

     UL: Underwriters Laboratories

     IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

    TIA: Industry Association of Telecommunications.

     EIA: Electronic Industries Association.

    Evolution of cabling standards:
    By the mid-1980s, there were many different network technologies. The communication between networks using different specifications and implementations became increasingly difficult. An organization called the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    An investigation of various types of networks, and created a network model named seven layers: OSI reference model (Open Systems Interconnection). This model was used worldwide to provide compatibility and interoperability between different networks of different technologies, wired technologies are included in 1of Layer OSI model is important to understand that these standards are constantly reviewed and updated
    periodically to reflect new technologies and increasing demands of voice and data networks.

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Original work of AT & T influenced each standard cables and connectors. 217 However, some of these early systems excluded products from other suppliers, or hindered the possibility of changing the concept without having to redo the system. By investing in a sole owner of a provider, the options are limited.

Companies such as Amp, Anixter and Mod-Tap, market and sell specific equipment for structured cabling systems.

Anixter, in particular, provides electrical standards openly documented, good performance, twisted pair wiring. The original concept of levels of Anixter is used by TIA / EIA and UL standards in Category 3, 5, 5e, 6 and 7

What are international standards, national and local?
Organizations such as IEEE, ISO and IEC are examples of international standardization bodies. International standardization organizations are often composed of members of the industries and governments of many countries, In this way, international standards are adopted by national organizations in many countries. Nationally, these standards are basically voluntary guidelines could be included in a
or more "codes" as the electrical code, building code or fire code.

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  • Types of codes:
    Electrical Code
    Building Code
    Fire Safety Code
    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) / IEC:
    Established in 1947, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international organization of national standardization organizations from more than 140 countries. The American National Standardization Institute (ANSI), for example, is a member of ISO. ISO is a nongovernmental organization that promotes the development of standards and related activities.
    ISO's work results in international agreements, which are published as international standards.

    The International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU, International Telecommunication Union) have formed a strategic partnership with the World Trade Organization (WTO, World Trade

    Founded in 1906, the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) is the umbrella organization prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical technology, electronics and those related.

    World Trade Organization, the organization recognizes the IEC as regional or national standards.

    American National Standardization Institute is a private non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the evaluation system of voluntary standardization and conformity of the United States.

    ANSI itself does not develop standards. On the contrary, facilitates the development process by establishing consensus among qualified groups. That is why the acronym is seen in many standards.

    ANSI Standard Y32.9-1972
    Graphic symbols for electrical wiring and layout diagrams used in architecture and building construction.

    American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society was Credor standard ANSI Y32.9-1972.

    The International Accreditation Forum, ANSI is responsible for representing the USA in this forum. Both TIA and EIA are accredited by the American National Standardization Institute (ANSI Section 6.2.7) to develop voluntary industry standards for a wide variety
    telecommunication products
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE):
    The IEEE has more than 860 standards that are currently running and 700 that are in development. The IEEE is renowned for developing standards for computer and electronics industry. In particular, remain largely IEEE 802 standards for local area networks. IEEE Standards 802: In February 1980, the IEEE established a committee to develop standards for networking, particularly for wiring and data transmission. The committee met as a committee 802 (802 refers to the year [1980] and month [February].) The standards committee created subcommittees and standards known as 802, with specific standards to which they assigned a decimal value as 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.5 (Token Ring). As the technology advances would not be necessary to create a completely new standard, only it would add a letter at the end of the decimal number example:

     802.3ab standard defines the operation of 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet over twisted pair wiring Category 5e, 802.3u defines Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps Similarly, the 802.11b (2.4 GHz / 11 Mbps), 802.11a ( 5.0 GHz / 54 Mbps), 802.11g (2.4 GHz / 54 Mbps) and 802.11i (Security 802.11) define the current wireless technology (Wi-Fi).

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  • ECA:

La Asociación de Componentes, Ensambles y Materiales Electrónicos, representa el sector de la industria electrónica compuesto por fabricantes y proveedores de componentes electrónicos pasivos y activos.

  • CEA:

La Asociación de Electrónica para el Consumidor, une más de 650 compañías dentro de la industria de la tecnología para el consumidor estadounidense a fin de ofrecer información exclusiva e investigación de mercado sin precedentes

  • GEIA:

La Asociación Gubernamental de Tecnología Electrónica y de la Información, conforma el sector de mercado gubernamental de la Asociación de Industrias Electrónicas (EIA).

  • JEDEC:

La Asociación de Tecnología en Estado Sólido del Consejo Conjunto de Ingeniería de Dispositivos Electrónicos, en 1960 como una actividad conjunta entre EIA y NEMA para tratar la estandarización de dispositivos semiconductores discretos.

  • NEMA:

La Asociación Nacional de Fabricantes de Electricidad, creada en 1926, ofrece un foro para la estandarización de equipos eléctricos, que permite a los consumidores elegir productos eléctricos seguros, efectivos y compatibles.

  • ¿Qué deben tener en cuenta los instaladores de cables de telecomunicaciones sobre la electricidad?

Las reglas sobre electricidad, por lo general, se centran en controlar que los electricistas estén capacitados para evitar situaciones peligrosas por utilizar técnicas inadecuadas. A menudo, se efectúa un proceso de inspección que debe completarse para certificar que el trabajo se ha realizado según los estándares antes de poder utilizar u ocupar una estructura. En muchos lugares, la violación de códigos y estándares constituye un incumplimiento de la ley.

El instalador de cables de telecomunicaciones es el que debe acercarse al cableado y a los accesorios eléctricos más que ninguna otra persona. Por esta razón, es importante tener, por lo menos, un conocimiento básico de los códigos y los estándares que se aplican en el área geográfica donde se trabaja.

  • Estos códigos son los que se deben llevar acabo para que haya seguridad en el cableado y este estandarizado:

Códigos respecto a los límites del código (Artículo 90 de NEC)
Códigos respecto a las definiciones del código (Artículo 100 de NEC)
Códigos respecto a conexiones o puestas a tierra (Artículo 250 de NEC)
Códigos respecto al cableado para salas de computadoras (Artículo 645 de NEC)
Códigos respecto al cableado para Fibra Óptica (Artículo 770 de NEC)
Códigos respecto a telecomunicaciones y datos (Módulo 8 de NEC)
Códigos respecto al cableado de telecomunicaciones (Artículo 800 de NEC)

  • NEC:

National Electrical Code, Reglamento oficial estadounidense para instalaciones eléctricas

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you say the wiring standards to operate as specified. The standards setting organizations also act as leaders of industry to determine whether new technologies are compatible with existing, and if they meet the goals set by those who develop such technologies. Check regularly for updates or revisions to the standards of the following organizations for standardization.



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